Table 2

Diet items that were associated with toenail arsenic across the whole population
Crude models1 Adjusted models2
% change from 5th to 95th percentile consumers3
Category Item

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± SE4
P partial R2

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± SE
P partial R2 Males Females
Meats Dark meat fish (tuna steak, mackerel, salmon, sardines, bluefish, swordfish, 3–5 oz) 0.50 ± 0.22 0.025 0.8% 0.62 ± 0.22 0.004 1.5% 7.4 7.4
Beef, calf, or pork liver (3–4 oz.) -1.21 ± 0.52 0.019 0.9% -0.89 ± 0.50 0.073 1.1% -5.8 -5.8
Hamburger (1 patty) -0.32 ± 0.15 0.034 -0.1% -0.32 ± 0.15 0.038 -0.3% -12.6 -12.6
Dairy Eggs (1) -0.12 ± 0.05 0.036 0.4% -0.10 ± 0.05 0.060 0.3% -7.7 -7.7
Grains Bran, added to food (1 Tbsp) 0.14 ± 0.08 0.094 0.4% 0.15 ± 0.08 0.048 1.0% 0.9 6.0
Other grains (bulgur, kasha, couscous, etc.: 1 cup) 1.26 ± 0.46 0.006 1.9% 0.80 ± 0.45 0.074 2.4% 5.5 12.1
Cold breakfast cereal (1 cup) -0.12 ± 0.05 0.014 1.1% -0.10 ± 0.05 0.039 1.2% -11.6 -11.6
Fruits Cantaloupe (1/4 melon) 0.22 ± 0.12 0.079 0.7% 0.25 ± 0.12 0.039 1.0% 9.7 9.7
Vegetables Brussels sprouts (1/2 cup) 0.69 ± 0.27 0.010 0.3% 0.89 ± 0.26 0.001 1.0% 10.4 10.4
Raw carrots (1/2 carrot or 2–4 sticks) 0.18 ± 0.08 0.025 0.4% 0.15 ± 0.08 0.048 0.7% 7.9 14.9
Celery (4" stick) 0.25 ± 0.10 0.010 0.3% 0.29 ± 0.09 0.002 0.8% 11.3 21.8
Eggplant or zucchini (1/2 cup) 0.44 ± 0.18 0.017 0.8% 0.37 ± 0.18 0.047 1.2% 6.5 20.8
Tofu or soybeans (3–4 oz.) 0.58 ± 0.26 0.025 0.3% 0.46 ± 0.25 0.063 0.7% 3.1 6.8
Salsa/red chili sauce (1 Tbsp) 0.53 ± 0.18 0.003 0.6% 0.33 ± 0.17 0.057 0.9% 4.8 4.8
Beverages Beer, regular (1 glass, bottle, or can) 0.11 ± 0.03 0.001 0.8% 0.11 ± 0.03 0.001 1.1% 32.0 4.9
Red wine (5 oz glass) 0.12 ± 0.05 0.012 0.5% 0.14 ± 0.05 0.003 1.3% 12.9 5.3
White wine (5 oz glass) 0.27 ± 0.06 0.000 1.9% 0.27 ± 0.06 0.000 2.4% 12.1 23.3

Legend: Model results for the diet items with statistically significant associations with ln-transformed toenail arsenic, adjusted for tap water arsenic. Sample sizes ranged from n = 807-843. Bolding indicates a Q-value < 0.1.

1“Crude” indicates the model with adjustment for tap water arsenic only.

2“Adjusted” indicates the model with adjustment for tap water arsenic, age, sex, caloric intake, daily water consumption, smoking status, case–control status, and season of toenail collection.

3These columns summarize the percent change in predicted toenail arsenic concentration from 5th to 95th percentile consumers for males and for females; gender is included since males and females consumed some diet items (e.g., beer, wine) differently.

4Units for the estimated coefficients are natural-log transformed (toenail arsenic concentration, μg/g) (servings/d)-1.

Cottingham et al.

Cottingham et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:149   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-149

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