Vitamin D fortification of bread. Figure 2 depicts fortification levels for bread that are needed to either increase an individual’s vitamin D intake to a recommended level (IOM, DGE or to the UL, figureA) or to increase an individual’s 25(OH)D concentration to a preferred level (50 nmol/L or 75 nmol/L, figureB). The three columns represent the three scenarios of individuals with different carrier intakes (here: high, mean and low bread intake). A. Fortification levels for bread to meet intake values of nutritional guidelines of the IOM, of the DGE or to reach the UL. For definition of the “high carrier intake”, “mean carrier intake” and “low carrier intake” scenarios see Figure 1. Please note the break in the “low carrier intake” scenario for the UL. The x-axis depicts recommended intake levels, while y-axis shows fortification levels in μg per 100 g bread. White (5th percentile), grey (mean intake) and black shaded (95th percentile) bars reflect the current vitamin D intake levels (natural food sources and supplements). B. Fortification scenarios to reach concentrations of either 50 nmol/L or 75 nmol/L. The x-axis depicts varying fortification levels throughout the year, while the y-axis shows fortification levels in μg per 100 g bread. The dotted line belongs to individuals who tend to reach a 25(OH)D concentration of 50 nmol/L and the solid line belongs to the 75 nmol/L goal. Below each graph, months are indicated, during which no fortification is required. White (5th percentile), grey (mean intake) and black (95th percentile) labeled graphs stand for the current vitamin D intake levels (natural food sources and supplements).
Brown et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:151 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-151