Table 4

Mean daily intake of selected food groups, foods , and nutrients of members of the NLCS-Meat Investigation Cohort by meat consumption statusa
Men Women
All confirmed vegetarians, pescetarians and low meat consumers from the total cohort Random sample of meat consumers from the total cohort Self-reported vegetarians All confirmed vegetarians, pescetarians and low meat consumers from the total cohort Random sample of meat consumers from the total cohort Self reported vegetarians
Vegetarian Pescetarian 1 day/wk 2–5 day/wk 6–7 day/wk Vegetarian Pescetarian 1 day/wk 2–5 day/wk 6–7 day/wk
n = 217 n = 152 n = 482 n = 1326 n = 2973 Pb n = 416 n = 485 n = 242 n = 914 n = 1639 n = 2676 Pb n = 734
Energy (kcal) 1985 ± 515 2082 ± 540 1926 ± 548 2042 ± 494 2215 ± 501 <0.001 2018 ± 521 1575 ± 413 1581 ± 427 1571 ± 464 1646 ± 393 1723 ± 395 <0.001 1625 ± 420
    Food groups (g/day)
Vegetables 235 ± 100 248 ± 107 207 ± 105 189 ± 83 193 ± 84 <0.001 245 ± 102 225 ± 101 250 ± 103 211 ± 111 195 ± 82 193 ± 81 <0.001 246 ± 101
Fruit 227 ± 156 238 ± 188 177 ± 144 162 ± 120 149 ± 109 <0.001 229 ± 159 252 ± 157 235 ± 145 214 ± 143 193 ± 120 192 ± 119 <0.001 246 ± 143
Pulses 28.0 ± 43.7 27.0 ± 34.2 16.7 ± 23.7 10.1 ± 14.3 8.9 ± 12.2 <0.001 25.8 ± 38.0 17.0 ± 26.9 17.8 ± 27.2 12.3 ± 20.2 7.4 ± 9.4 6.3 ± 9.1 <0.001 16.9 ± 21.8
Grains 18.0 ± 25.4 19.0 ± 26.8 8.4 ± 14.8 2.4 ± 7.2 1.3 ± 4.9 <0.001 16.1 ± 23.1 16.7 ± 20.8 17.3 ± 13.0 7.8 ± 13.0 2.8 ± 6.2 2.0 ± 5.6 <0.001 16.1 ± 19.6
Nuts and seeds 8.3 ± 15.0 12.4 ± 22.4 8.2 ± 16.0 6.9 ± 14.4 8.0 ± 13.6 <0.001 8.6 ± 16.6 6.8 ± 11.7 7.1 ± 9.8 6.1 ± 12.3 4.2 ± 10.1 4.3 ± 8.1 <0.001 7.8 ± 11.9
Soy products 17.7 ± 29.6 19.6 ± 33.1 9.2 ± 23.6 0.9 ± 6.0 0.5 ± 5.6 <0.001 18.2 ± 28.7 14.7 ± 34.6 21.4 ± 17.1 5.6 ± 17.2 0.7 ± 4.6 0.6 ± 5.3 <0.001 16.6 ± 50.4
Meat and fish intake
 Total fresh meat 0 0 16.4 ± 16.7 80.3 ± 32.2 119 ± 39 <0.001 10.4 ± 27.5 0 0 15.4 ± 15.1 73.5 ± 29.7 109 ± 36.1 <0.001 6.7 ± 18.0
 Total fresh red meat 0 0 11.4 ± 12.6 68.9 ± 31.3 107 ± 39 <0.001 7.6 ± 23.6 0 0 9.7 ± 9.6 61.4 ± 28.8 96.0 ± 35.8 <0.001 4.4 ± 13.7
 Beef 0 0 2.8 ± 4.6 20.8 ± 19.2 32.5 ± 26.3 <0.001 2.5 ± 9.9 0 0 2.8 ± 5.3 18.8 ± 17.3 29.4 ± 25.1 <0.001 1.5 ± 5.8
 Pork 0 0 3.9 ± 5.8 27.9 ± 22.7 47.0 ± 30.6 <0.001 2.5 ± 10.1 0 0 2.9 ± 4.6 24.8 ± 20.5 43.0 ± 29.8 <0.001 1.3 ± 6.3
 Minced meat 0 0 3.11 ± 5.6 15.7 ± 14.0 22.1 ± 18.9 <0.001 2.2 ± 7.5 0 0 2.8 ± 4.9 13.9 ± 12.7 19.3 ± 16.8 <0.001 1.2 ± 5.0
 Liver 0 0 0.8 ± 3.7 1.9 ± 4.4 2.3 ± 4.8 <0.001 0.1 ± 0.6 0 0 0.5 ± 1.8 1.7 ± 3.8 1.9 ± 4.2 <0.001 0.2 ± 1.2
 Chicken 0 0 5.6 ± 10.2 12.6 ± 14.3 13.9 ± 15.4 <0.001 2.8 ± 9.6 0 0 6.0 ± 11.6 12.9 ± 14.9 14.1 ± 16.5 <0.001 2.5 ± 8.6
 Processed meat 0 0 4.6 ± 8.8 12.7 ± 14.6 18.1 ± 17.7 <0.001 1.9 ± 7.5 0 0 3.3 ± 8.3 8.4 ± 9.5 11.8 ± 12.4 <0.001 0.9 ± 4.5
 Fish 0 32.0 ± 42.5 18.4 ± 27.2 17.0 ± 20.3 13.0 ± 15.0 <0.001 11.6 ± 23.3 0 23.9 ± 27.1 14.7 ± 23.5 13.8 ± 16.4 10.8 ± 13.1 <0.001 8.6 ± 16.6
Dairy products 356 ± 225 342 ± 244 335 ± 250 304 ± 203 306 ± 212 <0.001 347 ± 232 358 ± 220 341 ± 228 335 ± 233 311 ± 198 295 ± 186 <0.001 356 ± 220
 Fermented milk products 151 ± 151 136 ± 149 125 ± 141 90.5 ± 111 81.7 ± 113 <0.001 144 ± 148 195 ± 167 190 ± 176 157 ± 158 124 ± 131 118 ± 126 <0.001 194 ± 163
 Nonfermented milk products 205 ± 189 205 ± 191 210 ± 216 214 ± 175 225 ± 191 <0.001 203 ± 193 162 ± 171 151 ± 161 177 ± 182 186 ± 157 177 ± 152 <0.001 161 ± 162
 Cheese 42.8 ± 34.9 45.1 ± 34.0 35.9 ± 33.2 24.8 ± 21.0 23.1 ± 20.5 <0.001 40.5 ± 33.2 38.5 ± 24.1 36.0 ± 24.4 31.9 ± 26.2 22.5 ± 17.7 21.5 ± 17.3 <0.001 37.0 ± 26.1
Eggs 14.4 ± 14.1 16.3 ± 13.6 14.0 ± 12.6 16.5 ± 11.1 17.4 ± 13.0 <0.001 15.0 ± 12.8 13.1 ± 13.1 14.0 ± 11.3 14.0 ± 12.9 14.8 ± 9.2 14.7 ± 10.1 <0.001 14.4 ± 11.9
Alcohol 4.3 ± 8.3 11.7 ± 18.5 8.6 ± 13.3 12.4 ± 14.4 16.1 ± 17.4 <0.001 6.8 ± 11.0 2.0 ± 5.5 4.5 ± 8.9 3.7 ± 8.3 5.6 ± 9.1 6.2 ± 10.2 <0.001 3.1 ± 7.0
    Nutrients (energy percent)
Fat total 40.7 ± 12.9 38.6 ± 13.4 44. 6 ± 17.9 43.3 ± 12.6 40.6 ± 11.0 <0.001 40.5 ± 12.5 41.8 ± 17.2 40.4 ± 16.3 43.7 ± 17.5 42.2 ± 12.5 41.3 ± 11.3 <0.001 40.2 ± 14.3
 Mono unstaturated fat 13.5 ± 5.1 13.0 ± 5.2 15.6 ± 6.9 16.0 ± 5.1 15.5 ± 4.5 <0.001 13.7 ± 4.9 13.8 ± 6.6 13.5 ± 6.2 15.0 ± 6.6 15.5 ± 5.0 15.6 ± 4.6 <0.001 13.4 ± 5.4
 Polyunsaturated fat 9.3 ± 4.4 9.5 ± 4.0 10.0 ± 5.2 9.5 ± 4.1 8.2 ± 3.7 <0.001 9.2 ± 4.0 8.9 ± 4.8 9.1 ± 4.8 9.6 ± 5.3 8.8 ± 4.2 8.1 ± 3.6 <0.001 8.7 ± 4.3
 Saturated fat 16.3 ± 5.8 15.5 ± 6.0 17.7 ± 7.0 16.8 ± 5.2 15.9 ± 4.7 <0.001 16.1 ± 5.6 17.4 ± 7.2 16.3 ± 6.6 17.9 ± 7.4 17.0 ± 5.3 16.6 ± 4.9 <0.001 16.5 ± 6.2
Protein total 15.4 ± 4.2 15.9 ± 5.2 16.2 ± 5.7 15.4 ± 4.6 14.7 ± 4.2 <0.001 15.8 ± 4.4 16.4 ± 5.1 17.4 ± 5.8 16.5 ± 5.6 16.3 ± 4.9 16.4 ± 4.7 0.05 16.4 ± 4.7
 Plant protein 8.7 ± 2.6 8.3 ± 3.2 7.8 ± 3.0 6.0 ± 1.8 5.2 ± 1.6 <0.001 8.4 ± 2.8 8.2 ± 2.8 8.5 ± 3.9 7.3 ± 2.8 5.8 ± 1.8 5.3 ± 1.6 <0.001 8.0 ± 2.7
 Animal protein 6.8 ± 3.2 7.6 ± 3.8 8.5 ± 3.9 9.5 ± 3.4 9.7 ± 3.2 <0.001 7.4 ± 3.5 8.2 ± 3.9 9.0 ± 3.9 9.3 ± 4.0 10.6 ± 3.7 11.3 ± 3.7 <0.001 8.5 ± 3.7
 Plant:animal ratio 42.0 ± 584 1.5 ± 1.5 1.1 ± 0.8 0.7 ± 0.3 0.6 ± 0.2 <0.001 22.5 ± 421 1.4 ± 4.1 0.8 ± 10.2 0.9 ± 1.3 0.6 ± 0.6 0.5 ± 0.2 <0.001 1.2 ± 2.7
Carbohydrates total 57.8 ± 15.7 52.5 ± 16.0 57.7 ± 20.7 48.9 ± 14.0 42.0 ± 12.0 <0.001 55.0 ± 15.4 56.0 ± 17.3 55.0 ± 18.1 54.9 ± 19.2 47.3 ± 12.6 42.7 ± 11.6 <0.001 53.0 ± 15.3
 Mono- disacharides 27.8 ± 10.4 22.4 ± 9.0 25.9 ± 12.0 22.6 ± 8.6 19.4 ± 7.8 <0.001 23.7 ± 9.4 25.9 ± 10.3 24.9 ± 10.7 25.8 ± 11.2 22.6 ± 7.7 20.3 ± 7.4 <0.001 24.5 ± 9.4
 Polysacharides 31.9 ± 8.6 28.7 ± 9.90 31.2 ± 11.6 26.1 ± 8.1 22.5 ± 6.9 <0.001 30.1 ± 8.8 29.0 ± 9.8 28.9 ± 9.9 28.7 ± 10.9 24.7 ± 7.6 22.4 ± 6.7 <0.001 27.5 ± 8.5

Values are means ± SD.

aExcluding prevalent cancer cases at baseline.

bP values are derived from one way anova comparing the five meat consumption groups (vegetarian, pescetarian, 1 day/wk-, 2–5 day/wk-, and 6–7 day/wk meat consumers).

Gilsing et al.

Gilsing et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:156   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-156

Open Data