Table 5

Mean daily intake of selected vitamins, minerals, supplement use and salt intake of members of the NLCS-Meat Investigation Cohort by meat consumption statusa
Men Women
All confirmed vegetarians, pescetarians and low meat consumers from the total cohort Random sample of meat consumers from the total cohort Self-reported vegetarians All confirmed vegetarians, pescetarians and low meat consumers from the total cohort Random sample of meat consumers from the total cohort Self-reported vegetarians
Vegetarian Pescetarian 1 day/wk 2–5 day/wk 6–7 day/wk Vegetarian Pescetarian 1 day/wk 2–5 day/wk 6–7 day/wk
n = 217 n = 152 n = 482 n = 1326 n = 2973 Pb n = 416 n = 485 n = 242 n = 914 n = 1639 n = 2676 Pb n = 734
    Vitamins (from diet)
 Retinol (mg) 1.14 ± 0.35 1.11 ± 0.37 1.09 ± 0.38 1.05 ± 0.37 1.01 ± 0.37 <0.001 1.14 ± 0.34 1.04 ± 0.36 1.05 ± 0.39 0.99 ± 0.37 0.93 ± 0.37 0.90 ± 0.38 <0.001 1.07 ± 0.37
 β-carotene (mg) 0.61 ± 0.35 0.59 ± 0.37 0.49 ± 0.32 0.42 ± 0.23 0.40 ± 0.21 <0.001 0.60 ± 0.34 0.60 ± 0.36 0.64 ± 0.39 0.52 ± 0.34 0.44 ± 0.26 0.41 ± 0.23 <0.001 0.64 ± 0.37
 Vitamin B1 (mg) 1.25 ± 0.26 1.23 ± 0.25 1.14 ± 0.23 1.15 ± 0.19 1.22 ± 0.22 <0.001 1.25 ± 0.25 1.04 ± 0.24 1.03 ± 0.21 0.96 ± 0.20 0.99 ± 0.17 1.06 ± 0.19 <0.001 1.04 ± 0.22
 Vitamin B2 (mg) 1.62 ± 0.38 1.63 ± 0.39 1.61 ± 0.42 1.59 ± 0.37 1.57 ± 0.36 <0.001 1.63 ± 0.39 1.51 ± 0.39 1.52 ± 0.38 1.48 ± 0.41 1.47 ± 0.36 1.44 ± 0.34 <0.001 1.52 ± 0.38
 Vitamin B3 (mg) 14.7 ± 3.6 16.7 ± 5.0 16.2 ± 4.4 15.6 ± 3.8 15.4 ± 4.1 <0.001 15.4 ± 3.8 11.8 ± 3.2 12.9 ± 3.1 12.6 ± 3.3 12.6 ± 2.9 12.4 ± 3.0 <0.001 12.2 ± 3.2
 Vitamin B6 (mg) 1.42 ± 0.27 1.40 ± 0.29 1.37 ± 0.31 1.48 ± 0.25 1.57 ± 0.28 <0.001 1.45 ± 0.29 1.15 ± 0.25 1.17 ± 0.23 1.17 ± 0.27 1.28 ± 0.23 1.37 ± 0.24 <0.001 1.19 ± 0.26
 Vitamin B11 (μm) 252 ± 55 250 ± 61 232 ± 69 227 ± 64 222 ± 65 <0.001 253 ± 57 217 ± 60 218 ± 52 204 ± 62 200 ± 59 197 ± 62 <0.001 223 ± 58
 Vitamin C (mg) 123 ± 51 122 ± 57 108 ± 51 101 ± 42 97 ± 41 <0.001 124 ± 52 127 ± 54 122 ± 50 117 ± 56 109 ± 44 106 ± 42 <0.001 128 ± 51
 Vitamin E (mg) 16.1 ± 6.0 15.3 ± 5.1 15.4 ± 5.1 15.4 ± 5.6 14.4 ± 5.6 <0.001 16.2 ± 5.4 12.9 ± 4.4 13.1 ± 4.4 12.9 ± 4.9 12.4 ± 4.6 11.8 ± 4.4 <0.001 13.2 ± 4.4
    Minerals
 Calcium (mg) 1238 ± 379 1242 ± 395 1160 ± 380 991 ± 291 934 ± 294 <0.001 1211 ± 391 1144 ± 327 1117 ± 324 1062 ± 335 927 ± 275 875 ± 263 <0.001 1125 ± 323
 Phosphor (mg) 1726 ± 293 1758 ± 312 1647 ± 313 1542 ± 256 1528 ± 255 <0.001 1728 ± 309 1453 ± 260 1471 ± 250 1388 ± 282 1324 ± 240 1318 ± 228 <0.001 1460 ± 257
 Magnesium (mg) 435 ± 103 449 ± 120 389 ± 91 355 ± 59 329 ± 53 <0.001 436 ± 104 360 ± 87 369 ± 87 322 ± 72 292 ± 47 289 ± 46 <0.001 363 ± 85
 Iron (mg) 14.4 ± 2.8 15.0 ± 2.9 13.6 ± 2.7 13.2 ± 2.3 13.3 ± 2.4 <0.001 14.6 ± 2.6 11.8 ± 2.3 12.3 ± 2.4 11.4 ± 2.1 11.5 ± 2.0 11.7 ± 2.0 <0.001 12.0 ± 2.2
 Potassium (mg) 3768 ± 634 3771 ± 749 3656 ± 727 3684 ± 585 3763 ± 605 <0.001 3796 ± 673 3261 ± 607 3312 ± 618 3229 ± 658 3288 ± 532 3348 ± 544 <0.001 3313 ± 598
 Dietary cholesterol (mg) 197 ± 83 228 ± 84 227 ± 73 265 ± 67 287 ± 78 <0.001 213 ± 81 177 ± 66 187 ± 66 200 ± 67 229 ± 58 245 ± 61 <0.001 188 ± 66
 Dietary fiber (g) 40.3 ± 8.8 39.3 ± 9.6 34.8 ± 9.0 29.8 ± 7.3 28.1 ± 6.8 <0.001 39.6 ± 8.9 32.6 ± 7.3 32.5 ± 7.0 29.3 ± 7.1 25.6 ± 5.8 24.6 ± 5.5 <0.001 32.4 ± 7.1
Supplement use (number of sup/day) 0.9 ± 1.2 0.9 ± 1.2 0.8 ± 1.1 0.4 ± 0.9 0.3 ± 0.6 <0.001 0.9 ± 1.2 1.3 ± 1.3 1.3 ± 1.3 1.0 ± 1.3 0.6 ± 0.9 0.5 ± 0.8 <0.001 1.33 ± 1.3
NaCl (mg) (from foods) 5800 ± 2150 6496 ± 2331 6127 ± 2410 6316 ± 2054 6693 ± 2231 <0.001 6073 ± 2302 4678 ± 1743 4964 ± 1740 5203 ± 9097 5158 ± 1639 5433 ± 1813 <0.001 4869 ± 1672
Salt added during cooking (g) 1.67 ± 2.58 1.96 ± 2.07 2.65 ± 3.22 4.01 ± 4.06 4.43 ± 4.32 <0.001 1.94 ± 2.69 1.55 ± 2.34 2.14 ± 2.51 3.00 ± 4.13 3.86 ± 4.05 3.99 ± 4.26 <0.001 1.94 ± 2.69

Values are mean ± SD.

Nutrients are adjusted for total energy intake (using residuals).

aExcluding prevalent cancer cases at baseline.

bP values are derived from one way anova comparing the five meat consumption groups (vegetarian, pescetarian, 1 day/wk-, 2–5 day/wk-, and 6–7 day/wk meat consumers).

Gilsing et al.

Gilsing et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:156   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-156

Open Data