Table 1

Sodium intake by participants’ characteristics1
Variable Baseline One year P for time-points2
n Mean (S.E.) (mg/day) n Mean (S.E.) (mg/day)
Sodium intake (mg/day) 240 2994 (72) 184 2558 (77) <0.001
Sodium density (mg/kcal) 240 1.613 (0.025) 184 1.660 (0.034) 0.249
Sodium/potassium ratio 240 1.211 (0.027) 184 1.047 (0.031) <0.001
Treatment arms
 AHA diet 119 3063 (99) 92 2415 (110) <0.001
 High fiber diet 121 2927 (98) 92 2694 (110)
 p value3 0.330 0.074
Gender
 Female 173 2742 (77) 135 2380 (88) <0.001
 Male 67 3645 (125) 49 3051 (146)
 p value3 <0.001 <0.001
Age group
 <51 y 93 3211 (112) 59 2546 (140) <0.001
 ≥51 y 147 2857 (89) 125 2564 (96)
 p value3 0.014 0.916
Race/ethnicity
 Caucasian 213 3034 (74) 165 2545 (84) 0.145
 Others 27 2683 (208) 19 2670 (248)
 p value3 0.115 0.634
Education
 High school diploma or less 33 2989 (189) 25 2843 (217) 0.005
 Bachelor’s degree or less 146 3054 (90) 108 2561 (104)
 Graduate/professional 59 2833 (141) 49 2398 (155)
 p value3 0.509 0.095
Household income
 $0-$30000 24 3104 (220) 15 2617 (270) <0.001
 $30000-$50000 43 3167 (165) 36 2567 (180)
 $50000-$75000 40 2851 (171) 33 2345 (188)
 More than $75000 79 3167 (122) 60 2612 (139)
 Unclear 54 2662 (147) 40 2625 (171)
 p value3 0.096 0.419
Currently working
 Full-time or part-time 188 3101(78) 145 2550 (89) 0.027
 Others 52 2607 (149) 39 2590 (172)
 p value3 0.004 0.837
Marital status
 Married 162 2979 (85) 121 2590 (99) <0.001
 Not Married 78 3026 (123) 63 2498 (137)
 p value3 0.753 0.584
Components of metabolic syndrome
 3 71 2820 (126) 52 2573 (166) <0.001
 4 96 3171 (108) 76 2639 (126)
 5 72 2902 (125) 44 2446 (166)
 p value3 0.096 0.796
Dietary attitudes to low sodium
Agree limiting sodium is important 195 2914 (76) 169 2531 (82) 0.008
Not sure/disagree sodium is important 44 3322 (155) 15 2928 (258)
 P value3 0.017 0.141

1Sodium intakes per meal described with mean ± standard error and were estimated by LSMEANS of PROC MIXED model in SAS.

2P values for time-points were compared at baseline and 1-year and determined from mixed models fitting item, time-points and interaction between them. However, none of the interaction terms were significant in the models.

3P values compared the differences between groups at the same time-point and were determined from LSMEANS of PROC MIXED model in SAS.

Wang et al.

Wang et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:163   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-163

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