Table 2

Sodium intake (mg/meal) and sodium density (mg/kcal) by meal type, weekday and location at baseline and one year 1
Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snack
Location2,7 Baseline One-year Baseline One-year Baseline One-year Baseline One-year
At home
n = 273 n = 275 n = 184 n = 171 n = 409 n = 330 n = 695 n = 535
Sodium intake 487 ± 39 425 ± 39 1062 ± 474 883 ± 49 1281 ± 334 1058 ± 36 228 ± 26 215 ± 30
Sodium density 1.29 ± 0.05 1.28 ± 0.06 2.22 ± 0.11 2.36 ± 0.12 1.94 ± 0.06 1.91 ± 0.07 1.02 ± 0.04 1.29 ± 0.14
Away from home
n = 67 n = 59 n = 140 n = 131 n = 19 n = 18 n = 302 n = 220
Sodium intake 527 ± 77 394 ± 82 1102 ± 544 841 ± 56 1317 ± 142 1132 ± 146 169 ± 38 193 ± 45
Sodium density 1.38 ± 0.09 1.22 ± 0.13 2.13 ± 0.09 2.04 ± 0.12 2.30 ± 0.24 2.26 ± 0.34 0.94 ± 0.07 0.95 ± 0.08
Restaurant/fast food
n = 25 n = 15 n = 65 n = 57 n = 62 n = 59 n = 37 n = 9
Sodium intake 1023 ± 1245 881 ± 1615 1478 ± 785 1488 ± 835 1610 ± 804,5 1861 ± 825 274 ± 103 670 ± 2065
Sodium density 1.68 ± 0.125 1.85 ± 0.195 2.19 ± 0.13 2.29 ± 0.13 1.80 ± 0.13 2.00 ± 0.14 0.81 ± 0.15 1.36 ± 0.40
Weekdays3,7
n = 225 n = 248 n = 249 n = 254 n = 307 n = 279 n = 680 n = 554
Sodium intake 488 ± 44 413 ± 42 1098 ± 424 948 ± 41 1256 ± 384 1137 ± 40 168 ± 27 200 ± 30
Sodium density 1.32 ± 0.05 1.28 ± 0.06 2.22 ± 0.09 2.26 ± 0.09 1.91 ± 0.07 1.93 ± 0.08 0.93 ± 0.04 1.25 ± 0.13
Weekend days3,7
n = 140 n = 101 n = 140 n = 105 n = 183 n = 128 n = 354 n = 210
Sodium intake 587 ± 54 464 ± 64 1213 ± 544 965 ± 63 1420 ± 484,6 1233 ± 57 271 ± 366 204 ± 46
Sodium density 1.37 ± 0.07 1.33 ± 0.10 2.11 ± 0.10 2.16 ± 0.13 1.97 ± 0.10 1.96 ± 0.11 1.09 ± 0.07 1.05 ± 0.10

1Sodium intakes per meal and sodium density per meal described with mean ± standard error and were estimated by LSMEANS of PROC MIXED model in SAS.

2Model 1: Tested by Proc Mixed model in SAS, fitting sodium intake or sodium density as the dependent variable, independent variables included meal type (P < 0.001), day of week (P < 0.001), time-point (P = 0.238), location (P < 0.001), gender (P < 0.001), condition (P = 0.836) and interaction of meal and location and time-point (P < 0.001) as fixed effects, and subject ID as a random effect.

3Model 2: Tested by Proc Mixed model in SAS, fitting sodium intake or sodium density as dependent variable, independent variables included meal type (P < 0.001), day of week (P < 0.001), time-point (P < 0.001), gender (P < 0.001), condition (P = 0.802) and interaction of meal and weekday and time-point (P = 0.024) as fixed effects, and subject ID as a random effect.

4P < 0.05 and P values compared differences between baseline and one year and were determined from LSMEANS of PROC MIXED model in SAS.

5P < 0.05 and P values compared differences between restaurant/fast food and eaten at home at the same time-point and determined from LSMEANS of PROC MIXED model in SAS.

6P < 0.05 and P values compared differences to weekdays and determined from LSMEANS of PROC MIXED in SAS.

7For sodium intake, Models 3 and 4 were additionally adjusted for total caloric intake and all aforementioned statistically significant differences were attenuated towards the null.

Wang et al.

Wang et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:163   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-163

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