Table 2 |
||||||||
Sodium intake (mg/meal) and sodium density (mg/kcal) by meal type, weekday and location at baseline and one year ^{1} | ||||||||
Breakfast | Lunch | Dinner | Snack | |||||
Location^{2,7} | Baseline | One-year | Baseline | One-year | Baseline | One-year | Baseline | One-year |
At home | ||||||||
n = 273 | n = 275 | n = 184 | n = 171 | n = 409 | n = 330 | n = 695 | n = 535 | |
Sodium intake | 487 ± 39 | 425 ± 39 | 1062 ± 47^{4} | 883 ± 49 | 1281 ± 33^{4} | 1058 ± 36 | 228 ± 26 | 215 ± 30 |
Sodium density | 1.29 ± 0.05 | 1.28 ± 0.06 | 2.22 ± 0.11 | 2.36 ± 0.12 | 1.94 ± 0.06 | 1.91 ± 0.07 | 1.02 ± 0.04 | 1.29 ± 0.14 |
Away from home | ||||||||
n = 67 | n = 59 | n = 140 | n = 131 | n = 19 | n = 18 | n = 302 | n = 220 | |
Sodium intake | 527 ± 77 | 394 ± 82 | 1102 ± 54^{4} | 841 ± 56 | 1317 ± 142 | 1132 ± 146 | 169 ± 38 | 193 ± 45 |
Sodium density | 1.38 ± 0.09 | 1.22 ± 0.13 | 2.13 ± 0.09 | 2.04 ± 0.12 | 2.30 ± 0.24 | 2.26 ± 0.34 | 0.94 ± 0.07 | 0.95 ± 0.08 |
Restaurant/fast food | ||||||||
n = 25 | n = 15 | n = 65 | n = 57 | n = 62 | n = 59 | n = 37 | n = 9 | |
Sodium intake | 1023 ± 124^{5} | 881 ± 161^{5} | 1478 ± 78^{5} | 1488 ± 83^{5} | 1610 ± 80^{4,5} | 1861 ± 82^{5} | 274 ± 103 | 670 ± 206^{5} |
Sodium density | 1.68 ± 0.12^{5} | 1.85 ± 0.19^{5} | 2.19 ± 0.13 | 2.29 ± 0.13 | 1.80 ± 0.13 | 2.00 ± 0.14 | 0.81 ± 0.15 | 1.36 ± 0.40 |
Weekdays^{3,7} | ||||||||
n = 225 | n = 248 | n = 249 | n = 254 | n = 307 | n = 279 | n = 680 | n = 554 | |
Sodium intake | 488 ± 44 | 413 ± 42 | 1098 ± 42^{4} | 948 ± 41 | 1256 ± 38^{4} | 1137 ± 40 | 168 ± 27 | 200 ± 30 |
Sodium density | 1.32 ± 0.05 | 1.28 ± 0.06 | 2.22 ± 0.09 | 2.26 ± 0.09 | 1.91 ± 0.07 | 1.93 ± 0.08 | 0.93 ± 0.04 | 1.25 ± 0.13 |
Weekend days^{3,7} | ||||||||
n = 140 | n = 101 | n = 140 | n = 105 | n = 183 | n = 128 | n = 354 | n = 210 | |
Sodium intake | 587 ± 54 | 464 ± 64 | 1213 ± 54^{4} | 965 ± 63 | 1420 ± 48^{4,6} | 1233 ± 57 | 271 ± 36^{6} | 204 ± 46 |
Sodium density | 1.37 ± 0.07 | 1.33 ± 0.10 | 2.11 ± 0.10 | 2.16 ± 0.13 | 1.97 ± 0.10 | 1.96 ± 0.11 | 1.09 ± 0.07 | 1.05 ± 0.10 |
^{1}Sodium intakes per meal and sodium density per meal described with mean ± standard error and were estimated by LSMEANS of PROC MIXED model in SAS.
^{2}Model 1: Tested by Proc Mixed model in SAS, fitting sodium intake or sodium density as the dependent variable, independent variables included meal type (P < 0.001), day of week (P < 0.001), time-point (P = 0.238), location (P < 0.001), gender (P < 0.001), condition (P = 0.836) and interaction of meal and location and time-point (P < 0.001) as fixed effects, and subject ID as a random effect.
^{3}Model 2: Tested by Proc Mixed model in SAS, fitting sodium intake or sodium density as dependent variable, independent variables included meal type (P < 0.001), day of week (P < 0.001), time-point (P < 0.001), gender (P < 0.001), condition (P = 0.802) and interaction of meal and weekday and time-point (P = 0.024) as fixed effects, and subject ID as a random effect.
^{4}P < 0.05 and P values compared differences between baseline and one year and were determined from LSMEANS of PROC MIXED model in SAS.
^{5}P < 0.05 and P values compared differences between restaurant/fast food and eaten at home at the same time-point and determined from LSMEANS of PROC MIXED model in SAS.
^{6}P < 0.05 and P values compared differences to weekdays and determined from LSMEANS of PROC MIXED in SAS.
^{7}For sodium intake, Models 3 and 4 were additionally adjusted for total caloric intake and all aforementioned statistically significant differences were attenuated towards the null.
Wang et al.
Wang et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:163 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-163