Table 4

Odds ratiosa of diabetes according to quartiles of dietary GL, stratified analysis, JPHC Study
Quartile of energy adjusted dietary glycemic load P-trend
1 2 3 4
Men (n) 6943 6942 6942 6942
BMIb,c
BMI I < 25, OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.09 (0.80-1.50) 1.17 (0.84-1.62) 1.05 (0.72-1.52) 0.77
BMI I ≥ 25, OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.05 (0.72-1.52) 1.39 (0.97-2.00) 1.31 (0.88-1.96) 0.34
Physical activity (metabolic equivalents -h/d)b,d
Lower than median, OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.51 (1.06-2.14) 1.30 (0.89-1.91) 1.26 (0.81-1.94) 0.46
Median or higher, OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.30 (0.89-1.89) 1.57 (1.07-2.31) 1.30 (0.85-1.99) 0.21
Dietary fiber intakee
Lower than median, OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.25 (0.91-1.72) 1.21 (0.86-1.69) 1.20 (0.82-1.76) 0.43
Median or higher, OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.45 (1.04-2.03) 1.34 (0.94-1.91) 1.09 (0.74-1.61) 0.81
Total fat intake
Lower than median, OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.19 (0.81-1.74) 1.12 (0.75-1.68) 1.10 (0.70-1.74) 0.88
Median or higher, OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.51 (1.12-2.03) 1.46 (1.04-2.06) 1.25 (0.84-1.86) 0.17
Women (n) 9216 9216 9216 9216
BMIb,c
BMI I < 25, OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.37 (0.89-2.12) 1.29 (0.80-2.08) 1.26 (0.70-2.29) 0.03
BMI I ≥ 25, OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.19 (0.79-1.77) 1.01 (0.64-1.59) 1.22 (0.69-2.16) 0.09
Physical activity (metabolic equivalents -h/d)b,d
Lower than median, OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.13 (0.74-1.73) 1.01 (0.63-1.63) 0.91 (0.49-1.70) 0.57
Median or higher, OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.41 (0.86-2.32) 1.05 (0.58-1.90) 1.12 (0.52-2.43) 0.48
Dietary fiber intakee
Lower than median, OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.51 (1.002-2.28) 1.38 (0.90-2.11) 1.56 (0.98-2.49) 0.11
Median or higher, OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.13 (0.77-1.66) 1.15 (0.78-1.70) 1.37 (0.93-2.02) 0.12
Total fat intake
Lower than median, OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.09 (0.68-1.77) 1.13 (0.70-1.82) 1.32 (0.79-2.20) 0.23
Median or higher, OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.37 (0.95-1.96) 1.14 (0.75-1.75) 1.44 (0.93-2.23) 0.14

aAge, public health center area, total energy intake, smoking status, family history of diabetes, physical activity (metabolic equivalents), hypertension, BMI, alcohol intake, magnesium, calcium, dietary fiber and coffee intake and occupation.

bOnly individuals whose data was available were analyzed. BMI: 27,205 for men and 35,972 for women. Physical activity: 23117 for men and 30429 for women.

cThe model was not adjusted for BMI.

dThe model was not adjusted for physical activity.

eThe model was not adjusted for dietary fiber intake.

Oba et al.

Oba et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:165   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-165

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