Email updates

Keep up to date with the latest news and content from Nutrition Journal and BioMed Central.

Open Access Open Badges Research

The novel application of artificial neural network on bioelectrical impedance analysis to assess the body composition in elderly

Kuen-Chang Hsieh1, Yu-Jen Chen2, Hsueh-Kuan Lu3, Ling-Chun Lee4, Yong-Cheng Huang5 and Yu-Yawn Chen5*

Author affiliations

1 Research Center, Charder Electronic Co., LTD, Taichung, Taiwan

2 Department of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

3 Sport Science Research Center, National Taiwan University of Physical Education and Sport, Taichung, Taiwan

4 Graduate Institute of Sport Coaching Science, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan

5 Department of Physical Education, National Taiwan University of Physical Education and Sport, 16, Sec. 1, Shuan-Shih Rd, Taichung, 40404, Taiwan

For all author emails, please log on.

Citation and License

Nutrition Journal 2013, 12:21  doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-21

Published: 6 February 2013



This study aims to improve accuracy of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) prediction equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM) of the elderly by using non-linear Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network (BP-ANN) model and to compare the predictive accuracy with the linear regression model by using energy dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method.


A total of 88 Taiwanese elderly adults were recruited in this study as subjects. Linear regression equations and BP-ANN prediction equation were developed using impedances and other anthropometrics for predicting the reference FFM measured by DXA (FFMDXA) in 36 male and 26 female Taiwanese elderly adults. The FFM estimated by BIA prediction equations using traditional linear regression model (FFMLR) and BP-ANN model (FFMANN) were compared to the FFMDXA. The measuring results of an additional 26 elderly adults were used to validate than accuracy of the predictive models.


The results showed the significant predictors were impedance, gender, age, height and weight in developed FFMLR linear model (LR) for predicting FFM (coefficient of determination, r2 = 0.940; standard error of estimate (SEE) = 2.729 kg; root mean square error (RMSE) = 2.571kg, P < 0.001). The above predictors were set as the variables of the input layer by using five neurons in the BP-ANN model (r2 = 0.987 with a SD = 1.192 kg and relatively lower RMSE = 1.183 kg), which had greater (improved) accuracy for estimating FFM when compared with linear model. The results showed a better agreement existed between FFMANN and FFMDXA than that between FFMLR and FFMDXA.


When compared the performance of developed prediction equations for estimating reference FFMDXA, the linear model has lower r2 with a larger SD in predictive results than that of BP-ANN model, which indicated ANN model is more suitable for estimating FFM.

Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network (BP-ANN); Body composition; Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA); Elderly; Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry