Table 3

Age standardized geometric means for urinary concentrations of estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EM) and multivariable-adjusted percent difference1across categories of green tea intake in premenopausal women during the luteal phase
Categories of green tea intake
<1 per week (n = 62) 1-6 times per week (n = 32) 7+ times per week (n = 25)
Urinary concentration Urinary concentration Percent difference Urinary concentration Percent difference Ptrend
Total Estrogens and Metabolites 218.16 156.13 −25.5% (-40.7%--6.4%) 170.36 −26.3% (-43.0%--4.6%) 0.01
Parent Estrogens 37.58 29.99 −16.0% (-35.2%-8.9%) 34.57 −8.1% (-31.7%-23.6%) 0.42
Estrone 24.45 19.44 −20.2% (-39.2%-4.8%) 23.07 −6.9% (-31.8%-27.2%) 0.43
Estradiol 11.53 10.01 −5.4% (-27.0%-22.5%) 10.28 −8.9% (-32.1%-22.3%) 0.51
2-Hydroxylation pathway 39.11 28.05 −36.9% (-52.3%--16.4%) 38.11 −16.2%(-39.5%-16.0%) 0.10
2-Pathway catechols 30.57 22.42 −38.3%(-54.2%--16.8%) 28.5 −16.9%(-41.2%-17.6%) 0.10
2-Hydroxyestrone 27.65 19.68 −38.8%(-54.6%--17.6%) 27.06 −16.3%(-40.7%-18.2%) 0.10
2-Hydroxyestradiol 3.02 1.90 −43.9%(-61.9%--17.3%) 2.61 −25.5% (-52.4%-16.5%) 0.07
2-Pathway methylated catechols 7.24 5.66 −28.9%(-47.7%--3.5%) 7.77 −9.6%(-36.3%-28.2%) 0.34
2-Methoxyestrone 5.17 4.18 −24.0% (-44.6%-4.2%) 5.74 −1.3%(-31.4%-41.9%) 0.67
2-Methoxyestradiol 0.56 0.41 −28.7% (-50.8%-3.3%) 0.64 0.6% (-34.0%-53.4%) 0.73
2-Hydroxyestrone-3-methyl ether 1.15 0.81 −34.1% (-56.3%--0.5%) 1.06 −22.9%(-51.5%-22.5%) 0.17
4-Hydroxylation pathway EM 4.13 3.32 −21.4% (-43.3%-8.9%) 3.80 −13.5% (-40.3%-25.3%) 0.33
4-Pathway catechol: 4-Hydroxyestrone 3.71 2.95 −21.9% (-44.3%-9.6%) 3.31 −15.5% (-42.4%-24.1%) 0.29
4-Pathway methylated catechols 0.33 0.28 −19.1% (-43.3%-15.3%) 0.36 −7.1% (-38.0%-39.2%) 0.53
4-Methoxyestrone 0.23 0.17 −23.9% (-48.1%-11.6%) 0.24 4.0% (-32.5%-60.4%) 0.93
4-Methoxyestradiol 0.05 0.06 −15.2% (-56.1%-63.6%) 0.08 −8.2% (-56.4%-93.4%) 0.77
16-Hydroxylation pathway 123.03 84.72 −21.3% (-39.7%-2.7%) 87.57 −33.3% (-50.3% --10.4%) 0.001
16α-Hydroxyestrone 12.68 9.31 −24.0%(-40.9%--2.3%) 9.78 −31.1% (-48.2%--8.5%) 0.01
Estriol 68.67 44.67 −23.5% (-43.2%-2.9%) 46.16 −33.1% (-51.9%--7.0%) 0.01
16-Ketoestradiol 25.68 19.98 −17.8% (-39.8%-12.2%) 19.32 −31.5% (-51.3%--3.7%) 0.02
16-Epiestriol 10.09 7.11 −15.1% (-36.6%-13.6%) 7.74 −30.8% (-49.9%--4.2%) 0.02
17-Epiestriol 1.79 0.97 −27.4% (-54.9%-16.8%) 0.95 −40.4% (-65.1%-1.7%) 0.04
Ratios
Parent estrogens / estrogen metabolites 0.21 0.24 10.6% (-11.5%-38.3%) 0.26 23.1% (-3.8%-57.6%) 0.09
2-Hydroxylation pathway / parent estrogens 1.04 0.94 −19.3% (-37.3%-3.8%) 1.10 −9.5% (-31.7%-20.1%) 0.37
4-Hydroxylation pathway / parent estrogens 0.11 0.11 −9.9% (-32.9%-21.2%) 0.11 −15.8% (-39.2%-16.6%) 0.28
16-Hydroxylation pathway / parent estrogens 3.27 2.83 −5.1% (-27.8%-24.8%) 2.53 −20.0% (-41.0%-8.5%) 0.17
2-Hydroxylation pathway / 16-hydroxylation pathway 0.32 0.33 −3.7% (-33.2%-38.8%) 0.44 21.2% (-19.8%-83.0%) 0.41
4-Hydroxylation pathway / 16-hydroxylation pathway 0.03 0.04 16.8% (-21.3%-73.3%) 0.04 21.8% (-21.8%-89.8%) 0.34
2-Hydroxylation pathway / 4-hydroxylation pathway 9.47 8.46 −13.3% (-28.3%-4.7%) 10.04 −1.2% (-20.2%-22.4%) 0.70
4-Pathway methylated catechols / 4-pathway catechols 0.09 0.09 20.7% (-13.4%-68.1%) 0.11 23.9% (-15.2%-81.0%) 0.20
2-Pathway methylated catechols / 2-pathway catechols 0.23 0.26 9.1% (-11.6%-34.6%) 0.26 7.7% (-15.1%-36.7%) 0.48

Derived measures of estrogen metabolism and statistically significant estimates are presented in bold font.

1 Robust linear regression models were used to estimate percent difference in EM measures with 95% confidence limits across categories of green tea intake while adjusting for age and study center.

2 Robust linear regression was used to test for trends in log-transformed EM measures across tea categories. Ptrend was modeled using categories coded as 0, 1, and 2.

Fuhrman et al.

Fuhrman et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:25   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-25

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