Table 4

Age-standardized mean urinary concentrations (picomoles per mg creatinine) of estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EM) and multivariable-adjusted percent difference1across categories of green tea intake in postmenopausal women
Categories of green tea intake
<1 per week (n = 62) 1-6 times per week (n = 32) 7+ times per week (n = 25)
Urinary concentration Urinary concentration Percent difference Urinary concentration Percent difference Ptrend
Total Estrogens and Metabolites 27.7 26.7 −6.2% (-33.7%-32.6%) 26.5 −10.5% (-36.0%-25.1%) 0.52
Parent Estrogens 5.81 3.89 −37.0% (-58.0%--5.4%) 4.01 −38.6% (-58.3%--9.6%) 0.01
Estrone 1.96 0.66 −41.1% (-60.5%--12.0%) 0.59 −47.0% (-63.9%--22.3%) 0.001
Estradiol 2.06 1.36 −41.5% (-65.9%-0.1%) 1.46 −36.0% (-61.8% -7.2%) 0.09
2-Hydroxylation pathway 6.41 4.13 −33.6% (-57.2% -3.0%) 5.92 −15.1% (-44.4%-29.6%) 0.48
2-Pathway catechols 4.90 3.53 −30.8% (-58.4%-15.1%) 4.18 −20.3% (-51.1%-30.0%) 0.37
2-Hydroxyestrone 4.12 2.42 −31.5% (-59.0%-14.6%) 3.29 −24.9% (-54.3%-23.4%) 0.27
2-Hydroxyestradiol 0.65 0.4 −15.3% (-58.4%-72.6%) 0.80 6.7% (-45.1%-107.2%) 0.83
2-Pathway methylated catechols 1.18 0.89 −26.9% (-50.6%-8.1%) 1.39 9.7% (-24.8%-60.0%) 0.54
2-Methoxyestrone 0.72 0.48 −35.8% (-61.3%-6.2%) 0.68 −6.2% (-42.7%-53.4%) 0.85
2-Methoxyestradiol 0.11 0.08 −33.2% (-64.8%-27.0%) 0.12 19.3% (-36.7%-124.8%) 0.60
2-Hydroxyestrone-3-methyl ether 0.2 0.25 −19.4% (-52.8%-37.7%) 0.45 34.9% (-19.1%-124.8%) 0.17
4-Hydroxylation pathway EM 1.01 0.67 −40.1% (-59.2%--11.8%) 1.04 −13.6% (-40.6%-25.7%) 0.60
4-Pathway catechol: 4-Hydroxyestrone 0.81 0.49 −39.1%(-61.7%--3.0%) 0.73 −18.0% (-47.6%-28.2%) 0.43
4-Pathway methylated catechols 0.16 0.13 −14.1% (-49.0%-44.7%) 0.25 48.8% (-10.4%-146.9%) 0.11
4-Methoxyestrone 0.12 0.09 −9.5% (-45.7%-51.0%) 0.15 69.1% (2.0%-180.4%) 0.05
4-Methoxyestradiol 0.02 0.02 −29.9% (-70.7%-67.7%) 0.07 87.2% (-19.3%-334.2%) 0.08
16-Hydroxylation pathway 12.9 15.9 19.5% (-24.8%-90.1%) 13.4 −1.6% (-37.4%-54.8%) 0.95
16α-Hydroxyestrone 1.15 1.22 −6.7% (-42.1%-50.1%) 1.25 −22.1% (-50.6%-22.7%) 0.27
Estriol 5.41 7.24 24.3% (-32.4%-128.6%) 5.85 3.5% (-42.8%-87.6%) 0.91
16-Ketoestradiol 4.28 5.09 20.5% (-22.1%-86.3%) 3.86 −18.5% (-46.8%-25.0%) 0.36
16-Epiestriol 0.88 0.77 −20.6% (-48.9%-23.4%) 0.91 6.4% (-30.5%-63.0%) 0.75
17-Epiestriol 0.15 0.11 −8.8% (-53.5%-79.0%) 0.16 1.6% (-46.2%-91.9%) 0.94
Ratios
Parent estrogens / estrogen metabolites 0.27 0.17 −37.8% (-57.2%--9.5%) 0.18 −32.6% (-53.3%--2.8%) 0.04
2-Hydroxylation pathway / parent estrogens 1.10 1.06 8.7% (-29.4%-67.4%) 1.48 12.0% (-26.4%-70.6%) 0.60
4-Hydroxylation pathway / parent estrogens 0.17 0.17 6.0% (-37.4%-79.5%) 0.26 32.5% (-21.2%-122.6%) 0.28
16-Hydroxylation pathway / parent estrogens 2.22 4.08 95.0% (25.5%-202.9%) 3.34 57.1% (2.6%-140.5%) 0.05
2-Hydroxylation pathway / 16-hydroxylation pathway 0.50 0.26 −50.2% (-70.6%--15.5%) 0.44 −19.9% (-51.7%-33.0%) 0.41
4-Hydroxylation pathway / 16-hydroxylation pathway 0.08 0.04 −51.4% (-71.0%--18.6%) 0.08 −10.1% (-45.7%-48.8%) 0.69
2-Hydroxylation pathway / 4-hydroxylation pathway 6.34 6.15 7.6% (-14.9%-36.0%) 5.70 2.6% (-18.9%-29.9%) 0.87
4-Pathway methylated catechols / 4-pathway catechol 0.20 0.26 37.3% (-23.3%-145.7%) 0.35 86.1% (6.6%-225.0%) 0.03
2-Pathway methylated catechols / 2-pathway catechols 0.24 0.29 14.4% (-25.4%-75.4%) 0.32 33.6% (-11.2%-100.8%) 0.16

Derived measures of estrogen metabolism and statistically significant estimates are presented in bold font.

1 Robust linear regression models were used to estimate percent difference in EM measures with 95% confidence limits across categories of green tea intake while adjusting for age and study center.

2 Robust linear regression was used to test for trends in log-transformed EM measures across tea categories. Ptrend was modeled using categories coded as 0, 1, and 2.

Fuhrman et al.

Fuhrman et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:25   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-25

Open Data