Table 3

Maternal dietary intake of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines and neural tube defects in offspring
Unadjusted odds ratios (95% CI) Adjusted odds ratios* (95% CI)
 Outcome Quartile 1 vs Quartile 2 Quartile 1 vs Quartile 3 Quartile 1 vs Quartile 4 Quartile 1 vs Quartile 2 Quartile 1 vs Quartile 3 Quartile 1 vs Quartile 4
Nitrate
anencephaly 0.93 (0.68-1.27) 0.72 (0.52-1.01) 0.90 (0.66-1.23) 0.97 (0.71-1.34) 0.81 (0.56-1.17) 0.99 (0.67-1.45)
spina bifida 0.93 (0.74-1.16) 0.96 (0.77-1.20) 0.77 (0.61-0.97) 0.93 (0.73-1.17) 0.98 (0.77-1.26) 0.78 (0.59-1.04)
encephalocele 0.80 (0.48-1.32) 1.00 (0.62-1.60) 0.74 (0.45-1.24) 0.75 (0.45-1.26) 0.87 (0.52-1.48) 0.59 (0.32-1.08)
Total Nitrite
anencephaly 0.83 (0.59-1.18) 1.11 (0.80-1.54) 1.31 (0.96-1.79) 0.82 (0.57-1.18) 1.04 (0.73-1.49) 1.06 (0.69-1.64)
spina bifida 0.96 (0.76-1.22) 1.08 (0.86-1.36) 1.18 (0.94-1.48) 0.96 (0.76-1.23) 1.02 (0.79-1.32) 1.00 (0.73-1.38)
encephalocele 1.00 (0.60-1.66) 0.95 (0.56-1.59) 1.20 (0.74-1.97) 0.97 (0.57-1.64) 0.83 (0.47-1.47) 0.96 (0.49-1.89)
Animal Nitrite
anencephaly 1.01 (0.72-1.43) 1.27 (0.92-1.76) 1.27 (0.91-1.75) 1.00 (0.71-1.42) 1.22 (0.86-1.73) 1.12 (0.76-1.67)
spina bifida 1.07 (0.85-1.34) 1.16 (0.92-1.46) 1.07 (0.85-1.35) 1.06 (0.83-1.34) 1.12 (0.88-1.43) 1.00 (0.75-1.33)
encephalocele 0.59 (0.34-1.02) 0.88 (0.54-1.43) 1.04 (0.66-1.66) 0.59 (0.34-1.03) 0.86 (0.51-1.44) 0.98 (0.55-1.74)
Plant Nitrite
anencephaly 1.13 (0.81-1.56) 0.87 (0.62-1.23) 1.26 (0.92-1.73) 1.18 (0.84-1.66) 0.86 (0.59-1.26) 0.95 (0.60-1.50)
spina bifida 0.95 (0.75-1.19) 0.82 (0.65-1.05) 1.14 (0.92-1.43) 0.94 (0.74-1.20) 0.81 (0.62-1.05) 0.90 (0.65-1.24)
encephalocele 1.02 (0.61-1.71) 1.23 (0.75-2.02) 1.05 (0.63-1.76) 0.99 (0.58-1.70) 1.04 (0.59-1.82) 0.61 (0.30-1.25)
Nitrosamine
anencephaly 1.01 (0.73-1.40) 1.10 (0.80-1.52) 1.03 (0.74-1.43) 1.10 (0.78-1.55) 1.18 (0.82-1.68) 1.06 (0.70-1.60)
spina bifida 0.81 (0.65-1.03) 0.87 (0.69-1.09) 0.98 (0.78-1.22) 0.82 (0.64-1.04) 0.85 (0.66-1.10) 0.91 (0.69-1.21)
encephalocele 0.98 (0.60-1.60) 0.79 (0.47-1.33) 1.03 (0.63-1.68) 1.01 (0.60-1.68) 0.82 (0.47-1.46) 1.13 (0.60-2.11)

* Logistic regression models adjusted for energy intake, maternal race/ethnicity, dietary folate intake, folic acid supplementation, and dietary fat intake.

Huber et al.

Huber et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:34   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-34

Open Data