Table 5

Maternal dietary intake of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines and oral cleft defects in offspring
Unadjusted odds ratios (95% CI) Adjusted odds ratios* (95% CI)
Outcome Quartile 1 vs Quartile 2 Quartile 1 vs Quartile 3 Quartile 1 vs Quartile 4 Quartile 1 vs Quartile 2 Quartile 1 vs Quartile 3 Quartile 1 vs Quartile 4
Nitrate
Cleft lip only 1.00 (0.80-1.26) 0.85 (0.67-1.08) 0.90 (0.71-1.14) 1.01 (0.80-1.28) 0.89 (0.68-1.15) 1.01 (0.76-1.33)
Cleft lip with cleft plate 1.05 (0.88-1.25) 0.93 (0.77-1.11) 0.89 (0.74-1.07) 1.07 (0.89-1.28) 0.96 (0.79-1.16) 0.90 (0.73-1.13)
Cleft palate only 1.02 (0.83-1.24) 0.99 (0.81-1.20) 0.98 (0.81-1.20) 1.06 (0.86-1.29) 1.05 (0.85-1.30) 1.15 (0.91-1.46)
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate 1.04 (0.89-1.20) 0.90 (0.77-1.05) 0.89 (0.77-1.04) 1.04 (0.90-1.22) 0.93 (0.79-1.09) 0.93 (0.78-1.12)
Nitrite
Cleft lip only 0.82 (0.64-1.04) 0.94 (0.75-1.19) 0.92 (0.73-1.17) 0.85 (0.67-1.08) 1.03 (0.80-1.33) 1.11 (0.81-1.51)
Cleft lip with cleft plate 0.99 (0.82-1.19) 1.04 (0.86-1.25) 1.25 (1.04-1.49) 1.02 (0.85-1.24) 1.02 (0.84-1.25) 1.12 (0.88-1.42)
Cleft palate only 0.82 (0.67-0.99) 0.87 (0.72-1.06) 0.83 (0.69-1.01) 0.85 (0.70-1.04) 0.97 (0.79-1.20) 1.02 (0.78-1.32)
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate 0.92 (0.79-1.08) 1.00 (0.86-1.16) 1.12 (0.97-1.30) 0.95 (0.81-1.11) 1.02 (0.86-1.20) 1.10 (0.91-1.35)
Animal Nitrite
Cleft lip only 0.98 (0.77-1.24) 0.92 (0.72-1.17) 1.12 (0.89-1.42) 1.00 (0.78-1.27) 1.00 (0.78-1.29) 1.32 (1.01-1.72)
Cleft lip with cleft plate 1.03 (0.86-1.24) 1.01 (0.84-1.21) 1.24 (1.04-1.48) 1.06 (0.88-1.28) 1.03 (0.85-1.24) 1.22 (0.99-1.49)
Cleft palate only 0.86 (0.71-1.05) 0.90 (0.74-1.10) 0.87 (0.72-1.06) 0.89 (0.73-1.08) 0.97 (0.79-1.19) 1.01 (0.80-1.27)
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate 1.01 (0.87-1.18) 0.97 (0.84-1.14) 1.20 (1.04-1.39) 1.03 (0.88-1.21) 1.01 (0.86-1.19) 1.24 (1.05-1.48)
Plant Nitrite
Cleft lip only 1.02 (0.81-1.29) 1.05 (0.83-1.32) 0.91 (0.71-1.15) 1.09 (0.85-1.39) 1.15 (0.89-1.50) 1.04 (0.74-1.46)
Cleft lip with cleft plate 0.98 (0.82-1.17) 0.92 (0.77-1.11) 1.16 (0.98-1.39) 1.03 (0.85-1.24) 0.95 (0.77-1.16) 0.98 (0.76-1.27)
Cleft palate only 0.92 (0.75-1.12) 1.03 (0.85-1.24) 0.84 (0.69-1.03) 0.97 (0.79-1.19) 1.15 (0.93-1.43) 1.01 (0.76-1.33)
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate 1.00 (0.86-1.16) 0.97 (0.83-1.12) 1.07 (0.92-1.24) 1.05 (0.89-1.23) 1.02 (0.86-1.20) 1.00 (0.81-1.24)
Nitrosamine
Cleft lip only 0.74 (0.58-0.94) 0.72 (0.56-0.92) 1.02 (0.81-1.27) 0.87 (0.69-1.09) 0.99 (0.78-1.26) 0.85 (0.64-1.13)
Cleft lip with cleft plate 0.89 (0.74-1.06) 0.89 (0.74-1.06) 0.93 (0.78-1.11) 0.90 (0.75-1.08) 0.95 (0.78-1.15) 0.89 (0.71-1.10)
Cleft palate only 0.85 (0.70-1.03) 0.86 (0.71-1.05) 0.77 (0.64-0.94) 0.78 (0.64-0.95) 0.85 (0.69-1.05) 0.88 (0.69-1.11)
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate 0.83 (0.72-0.97) 0.83 (0.71-0.96) 0.96 (0.83-1.11) 0.89 (0.76-1.03) 0.96 (0.82-1.13) 0.87 (0.73-1.04)

*Logistic regression models adjusted for energy intake, maternal race/ethnicity, maternal education, dietary folate intake, and study center.

Huber et al.

Huber et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:34   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-34

Open Data