Table 1

General characteristics of pregnant women and fetuses1
Variables n Values
Pregnant women
Age, y 327 29.9 ± 3.6
 Height, cm 324 160.8 ± 4.8
 Pre-pregnancy weight, kg 325 56.5 ± 9.7
 Pre-pregnancy BMI2, kg/m2 323 21.9 ± 3.5
Education, n (%) 337
 < High school 99 (29.4)
 < University 59 (17.5)
 ≥ University 163 (48.4)
 No-response 16 (4.7)
Family income, US$/mo, n (%) 337
 < 2000 95 (28.2)
 2000 - 4000 174 (51.6)
 > 4000 43 (12.8)
 No-response 25 (7.4)
Passive smoker, n (%) 337
 No 41 (12.2)
 Yes 268 (79.5)
 No-response 28 (8.3)
Urinary cotinine level, μg/g creatinine 316 71.8 ± 444.2
Supplement users, n (%) 337
 No 240 (71.2)
Yes 97 (28.8)
Parity 337
 0 180 (53.4)
 ≥1 147 (43.6)
 No-response 10 (3.0)
Fetuses
Sex 323
Girls, n (%) 164 (48.7)
 Boys, n (%) 159 (47.2)
Gestational age, wk 337 20.0 ± 3.4
Biparietal diameter, cm 334 4.8 ± 1.1
Abdominal circumference, cm 231 16.6 ± 3.8
Femur length, cm 297 3.3 ± 1.0

1 Values are mean ± SD or n (%).

Hwang et al.

Hwang et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:38   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-38

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