Table 2

Trends in Time Spent Cooking for US adults from 1965–1966 to 2007-2008*†
Proportion cooking (%)
MCTRP AUTP AUTP NHAPS/NTDS ATUS ATUS Change
1965-1966 1975-1976 1985-1986 1992-1995 2003-2004 2007-2008 1965-2007
Gender % SE % SE % SE % SE % SE % SE %
  Male 28.6 1.6 29.1 1.3 46.8ab 1.6 38.3a 0.9 37.9 a 0.5 41.7ab 0.6 +13.7
  Female 92.3 0.8 88.4ab 0.8 84.7ab 1.1 67.3ab 0.8 69.0a 0.4 67.7a 0.6 −24.6
Income
  Low 67.6 3.2 69.8c 3.2 65.5 3.0 58.1 3.2 55.6a 0.8 55.6a 1.1 −12.0
  Middle 62.7 1.6 61.7 1.4 67.1b 1.5 53.1ab 3.0 53.1a 0.5 53.6a 0.7 −9.1
  High 59.3 2.1 58.2c 1.7 68.4ab 1.8 49.6ab 3.0 53.9 0.7 56.4b 0.8 −2.9
Mean time spent cooking, of those cooking (min/day)
Gender min/day SE min/day SE min/day SE min/day SE min/day SE min/day SE min/day
  Male 36.7 2.1 37.8 1.8 36.1 1.6 39.8 1.2 43.0ab 0.7 45.0a 0.9 +8.3
  Female 112.8 2.2 100.6ab 2.0 82.8ab 2.1 64.7ab 1.3 67.1ab 0.6 65.6ab 0.8 −47.2
Income
  Low 98.7 5.1 85.8 5.2 73.4a 4.5 57.6ab 3.9 63.5ac 1.2 64.0ac 1.7 −34.7
  Middle 98.0 2.8 83.6ab 2.4 68.5ab 2.3 58.8a 4.0 57.0a 0.8 55.5a 0.9 −34.5
  High 92.6 3.8 91.9 3.3 65.9ab 3.1 63.4a 5.4 55.8ac 0.9 56.5ac 1.0 −36.1

* Data sources include Multinational Comparative Time-Budget Research Project (MCTRP) of 1965–1966 (n=1,888), American’s Use of Time Project (AUTP) of 1975–1976 (n=3,190), AUTP of 1985–1986 (n=2,391), National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) of 1992–1994 and National Time Diary Study (NTDS) of 1994–1995 (n=6,291), American Time Use Study (ATUS) of 2003–2004 (n=24,382), and ATUS of 2007–2008 (n=17,282). Percentages and mean time spent cooking are adjusted to be nationally representative.

Food preparation includes cooking and food preparation-related cleaning activities.

SE= standard error.

a Mean differed significantly from MCTRP 1965–1996, p ≤ 0.01 (t -test).

b Mean differed significantly from previous survey, p ≤ 0.01 (t -test).

c Mean differed significantly between high and low income groups for relevant year, p ≤ 0.01 (t -test).

Smith et al.

Smith et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:45   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-45

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