Table 3

Physiological responses, breath H2 and subjective appetite scores at fasting, 10.5 h after evening test- or reference meal1
Test variables WWB BK %2
Glucose (mmol/L) 5.2 ± 0.1 5.3 ± 0.13 2
Insulin (pg/mL) 607 ± 78 600 ± 58 -1
GLP-1 (pg/mL) 57.1 ± 8.2 68.7 ± 9.1 * 20
GIP (pg/mL) 26.5 ± 2.1 29.5 ± 2.4 11
Ghrelin (pg/mL) 108 ± 12.7 91.1 ± 9.33 -16
FFA (mmol/L) 0.38 ± 0.03 0.31 ± 0.03 * -18
IL-6 (pg/mL) 0.60 ± 0.07 0.49 ± 0.034 -18
Adiponectin (μg/mL) 9.3 ± 0.5 9.2 ± 0.5 -1
H2 (ppm) 16.5 ± 2.0 24.7 ± 2.2 ** 50
Satiety (mm) 18.8 ± 2.7 22.8 ± 3.1 21
Hunger (mm) 60.3 ± 3.4 61.8 ± 4.3 2

1 Values are means ± SEM. *Different from WWB P < 0.05; **P < 0.01. BK, barley kernel; f-, fasting-; GIP, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide; GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide-1; H2, breath hydrogen; WWB, white wheat bread.

2 The percentage change is calculated as the difference from the WWB to the BK.

3P = 0.07.

4P = 0.06.

Johansson et al.

Johansson et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:46   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-46

Open Data