Table 3

Blood pressure, lipids, and insulin sensitivity in adults 19+ y by frequency of candy consumption, NHANES 2003-2006
≤ 3 EO/mo > 3 EO/mo and ≤ 3.5 EO/wk > 3.5 EO/wk P for trend
(Infrequent) (Moderate) (Frequent)
n mean ± SE p-value n mean ± SE p-value n mean ± SE p-value
Systolic blood pressure
  Model 1a 2388 123 ± 0.5 reference 1882 124 ± 0.4 0.257 1312 124 ± 0.9 0.496 0.411
  Model 2b 2169 123 ± 0.5 - - 1731 123 ± 0.4 0.393 1181 124 ± 0.9 0.286 0.237
Diastolic blood pressure
  Model 1a 2372 71 ± 0.4 - - 1866 71 ± 0.3 0.540 1304 72 ± 0.5 0.107 0.112
  Model 2b 2153 71 ± 0.4 - - 1716 71 ± 0.3 0.360 1174 72 ± 0.5 0.424 0.557
LDL cholesterol
  Model 1a 1023 115 ± 1.2 - - 827 117 ± 1.3 0.304 595 118 ± 2.4 0.290 0.249
  Model 2c 965 116 ± 1.3 - - 800 116 ± 1.3 0.733 558 118 ± 2.5 0.399 0.395
HDL cholesterol
  Model 1a 2403 55 ± 0.5 - - 1877 54 ± 0.5 0.563 1299 54 ± 0.6 0.864 0.811
  Model 2d 2250 54 ± 0.5 - - 1783 54 ± 0.5 0.937 1218 54 ± 0.5 0.778 0.740
Triglycerides
  Model 1a 1049 143 ± 4.0 - - 847 137 ± 3.5 0.250 608 145 ± 5.4 0.815 0.957
  Model 2e 978 144 ± 4.1 - - 808 141 ± 4.0 0.472 560 149 ± 6.1 0.499 0.578
Insulin sensitivity (QUICKI)
  Model 1a 1047 0.34 ± 0.002 - - 846 0.35 ± 0.002 0.249 605 0.35 ± 0.002 0.168 0.111
  Model 2f 976 0.34 ± 0.001 - - 807 0.35 ± 0.002 0.161 557 0.35 ± 0.002 0.258 0.131

a Adjusted for sex, age, and race/ethnicity.

b Adjusted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, PIR, smoking (Y/N), physical activity, time watching TV/videos, BMI, blood pressure medication (Y/N), and energy adjusted alcohol, sodium, potassium, calcium, and total fruit and vegetable intake.

c Adjusted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, PIR, smoking (Y/N), physical activity, time watching TV/videos, and cholesterol medication (Y/N), and energy adjusted alcohol, non-candy fiber, non-candy saturated fat, non-candy monounsaturated fat, non-candy polyunsaturated fat, and non-candy cholesterol intake.

d Adjusted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, PIR, smoking (Y/N), physical activity, time watching TV/videos, BMI, cholesterol medication (Y/N), and energy adjusted alcohol intake.

e Adjusted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, PIR, smoking (Y/N), physical activity, time watching TV/videos, BMI, cholesterol medication (Y/N), and energy adjusted alcohol and non-candy total sugars intake.

f Adjusted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, PIR, smoking (Y/N), physical activity, time watching TV/videos, BMI, diabetes medication (Y/N), and energy adjusted alcohol intake.

Murphy et al.

Murphy et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:53   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-53

Open Data