Table 1

Baseline characteristics of Västerbotten Intervention Programme participants according to low-carbohydrate, high-protein (LCHP) score
n Low1, 2-8 n Medium1, 9-13 n High1, 14-20 p2
Men
Age at recruitment, years 9,811 50 (40–60) 12,909 50 (40–51) 8,677 40 (40–50) ≤0.001
Follow-up time, years 9,811 9.4 (6.4-12.7) 12,909 9.6 (6.1-12.8) 8,677 9.6 (5.2-13.1) 0.206
BMI, kg/m2 9,811 25.4 (23.7-27.5) 12,909 25.6 (23.8-27.8) 8,677 26.1 (24.1-28.4) ≤0.001
Current smokers 9,672 1,579 (16.3) 12,728 2,218 (17.4) 8,546 1,672 (19.6) ≤0.001
No postsecondary education 9,753 7,811 (80.1) 12,844 9,957 (77.5) 8,626 6,587 (76.4) ≤0.001
Sedentary lifestyle3 9,551 6,633 (69.4) 12,599 8,731 (69.3) 8,371 5,860 (70.0) 0.540
Energy intake, kcal/day 9,811 2,002 (1,672-2,397) 12,909 2,001 (1,667-2,410) 8,677 2,004 (1,672-2,415) 0.475
Ethanol intake, g/day 9,811 4.3 (1.1-7.5) 12,909 4.9 (1.8-8.3) 8,677 5.3 (2.2-8.6) ≤0.001
Carbohydrate intake,% of energy 9,811 53.5 (50.7-56.6) 12,909 48.1 (44.7-51.0) 8,677 43.6 (40.6-46.2) ≤0.001
Whole grain intake,% of energy 9,811 16.5 (12.2-30.0) 12,909 15.3 (11.1-19.7) 8,677 13.3 (9.4-17.3) ≤0.001
Sucrose intake,% of energy 9,811 8.3 (6.3-10.8) 12,909 6.2 (4.6-8.0) 8,677 4.8 (3.5-6.3) ≤0.001
Protein intake,% of energy 9,811 12.8 (11.9-13.7) 12,909 14.4 (13.3-15.4) 8,677 16.2 (15.3-17.3) ≤0.001
Animal protein intake,% of energy 9,811 8.3 (7.3-9.1) 12,909 10.2 (9.3-11.0) 8,677 12.4 (11.5-13.6) ≤0.001
Plant protein intake,% of energy 9,811 4.5 (3.9-5.2) 12,909 4.1 (3.5-4.7) 8,677 3.7 (3.2-4.2) ≤0.001
Fat intake,% of energy 9,811 32.7 (29.4-36.0) 12,909 36.7 (32.9-41.1) 8,677 39.4 (36.4-42.7) ≤0.001
Saturated fat intake,% of energy 9,811 13.5 (11.7-15.4) 12,909 15.4 (13.4-17.7) 8,677 16.6 (14.9-18.5) ≤0.001
Unsaturated fat intake,% of energy 9,811 18.9 (17.0-20.9) 12,909 21.1 (18.8-23.7) 8,677 22.6 (20.7-24.8) ≤0.001
Women
Age at recruitment, years 9,985 50 (40–60) 12,430 50 (40–50) 8,770 50 (40–50) ≤0.001
Follow-up time, years 9,985 9.7 (6.7-12.8) 12,430 9.9 (6.6-13.0) 8,770 9.9 (5.9-13.2) 0.206
BMI, kg/m2 9,985 24.4 (22.3-27.2) 12,430 24.4 (22.2-27.2) 8,770 24.7(22.4-27.8) ≤0.001
Current smokers 9,903 1,661 (16.8) 12,319 2,325 (18.9) 8,708 2,152 (24.7) ≤0.001
No postsecondary education 9,913 6,827 (68.9) 12,357 8,612 (69.7) 8,712 6,189 (71.0) 0.005
Sedentary lifestyle3 9,749 6,419 (65.8) 12,116 8,121 (67.0) 8,445 5,884 (69.7) ≤0.001
Energy intake, kcal/day 9,985 1,509 (1,273-1,787) 12,430 1,531 (1,294-1,815) 8,770 1,510 (1,268-1,806) ≤0.001
Ethanol intake, g/day 9,985 1.8 (0.1-3.4) 12,430 1.9 (0.2-3.8) 8,770 2.0 (0.2-4.0) ≤0.001
Protein intake,% of energy 9,985 13.4 (12.4-14.2) 12,430 14.9 (13.9-15.8) 8,770 16.7 (15.8-17.8) ≤0.001
Animal protein intake,% of energy 9,985 8.4 (7.5-9.3) 12,430 10.3 (9.5-11.1) 8,770 12.6 (11.6-13.7) ≤0.001
Plant protein intake,% of energy 9,985 4.9 (4.3-5.5) 12,430 4.5 (3.9-5.0) 8,770 4.1 (3.6-4.6) ≤0.001
Carbohydrate intake,% of energy 9,985 56.4 (53.8-59.3) 12,430 51.3 (48.3-53.8) 8,770 47.0 (44.2-49.4) ≤0.001
Whole grain intake,% of energy 9,985 18.4 (13.5-23.6) 12,430 16.7 (12.3-21.4) 8,770 14.4 (10.3-18.9) ≤0.001
Sucrose intake,% of energy 9,985 7.9 (6.2-10.0) 12,430 6.4 (5.0-7.9) 8,770 5.2 (4.0-6.6) ≤0.001
Fat intake,% of energy 9,985 29.1 (25.9-32.2) 12,430 33.0 (29.4-37.1) 8,770 35.5 (32.7-38.7) ≤0.001
Saturated fat intake,% of energy 9,985 11.8 (10.2-13.5) 12,430 13.7 (11.9-15.8) 8,770 14.9 (13.4-16.7) ≤0.001
Unsaturated fat intake,% of energy 9,985 17.1 (15.3-19.0) 12,430 19.1 (17.1-21.5) 8,770 20.4 (18.6-22.4) ≤0.001

1 LCHP scores were calculated separately for FFQ version and sex, and categorized into roughly equally sized groups: low (2–8 points), medium (9–13 points) and high (14–20 points). Values are medians (25th, 75th percentiles) or frequencies (percents).

2 p-values were determined by the Kruskal-Wallis test.

3 Defined as no regular physical activity in exercise clothes.

Nilsson et al.

Nilsson et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:58   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-58

Open Data