Table 3

Associations between low-carbohydrate, high-protein (LCHP) score and incident all-cause and site-specific cancer in subgroups of participants in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme based on metabolic risk profile, saturated fat intake, and energy reporting
Cancer type Sex n Cases HR1 (95% CI) HR1 (95% CI) p-heterogeneity2
Metabolic risk profile3 low/high Low High
All cancer Men 1,251/371 1.00 (0.98-1.02) 0.99 (0.95-1.02) 0.668
Women 1,182/355 1.00 (0.98-1.02) 1.00 (0.97-1.03) 1.000
Prostate cancer Men 549/108 1.00 (0.97-1.02) 0.98 (0.93 -1.03) 0.513
Breast cancer Women 468/113 1.00 (0.97-1.02) 1.02 (0.97-1.07) 0.509
Colorectal cancer Men 142/42 0.98 (0.93-1.02) 1.02 (0.94-1.11) 0.419
Women 110/35 0.97 (0.92-1.02) 1.04 (0.95-1.14) 0.193
Saturated fat intake4 low/high Low High
All cancer Men 817/705 1.00 (0.99-1.02) 1.00 (0.98-1.01) 1.000
Women 845/692 1.01 (0.99-1.02) 1.00 (0.98-1.02) 0.493
Prostate cancer Men 375/282 1.01 (0.98-1.03) 0.99 (0.96-1.02) 0.363
Breast cancer Women 320/261 1.01 (0.98-1.04) 0.99 (0.96-1.02) 0.363
Colorectal cancer Men 89/95 1.00 (0.95-1.06) 0.97 (0.92-1.02) 0.418
Women 83/62 1.03 (0.98-1.09) 0.92 (0.87-0.98) 0.003
Energy reporting5 adequate/inadequate adequate inadequate
All cancer Men 548/846 1.00 (0.97-1.02) 1.00 (0.98-1.02)
Women 440/996 1.00 (0.98-1.03) 1.00 (0.98-1.01) 1.000
Prostate cancer Men 250/353 1.00 (0.97-1.03) 1.00 (0.97-1.03) 1.000
Breast cancer Women 192/360 0.98 (0.95-1.02) 1.01 (0.98-1.04) 1.000
Colorectal cancer Men 59/108 1.01 (0.94-1.08) 1.00 (0.94-1.04) 0.172
Women 33/103 1.03 (0.94-1.12) 0.96 (0.92-1.01) 0.837

1 Hazard ratios per 1-point increase in LCHP score, determined by Cox regression and adjusted for age strata, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, lack of postsecondary education, current smoking, and intake of energy, alcohol, and saturated fat. Saturated fat intake was not included as a covariate in the subgroup analysis based on saturated fat.

2 Comparison of subgroup HR by Chi-square test.

3 Metabolic risk profile defined as having at least one of (high), versus none of (low), obesity, diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance.

4 Stratified at sex-specific medians.

5 Defined according to the Goldberg cut-off, modified as described previously [19].

Nilsson et al.

Nilsson et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:58   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-58

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