Table 2

Major wholegrain phytochemicals, factors affecting their bioavailability and suggested mechanisms for promoting health
Phytochemical Major grain sources Food & dietary factors affecting bioavailability Other factors that enhance bioavailability Potential mechanisms of action
Phenolics
free Oats Milk Unknown Increase plasma total antioxidant capacity to directly mitigate oxidative stress
Heme iron Unknown Indirect through cell signalling
bound Wheat, barley, oats, rye Grain structure Bio-processing of grain Increase plasma total antioxidant capacity to directly mitigate oxidative stress
Colonic fermentation (limited evidence) Indirect through cell signalling
Flavanoids Wheat, barley Grain structure Unknown Increase plasma uric acid levels which has reducing and free radical scavenging activities
Improve glutathione radical scavenging system
Selenium Wheat, barley, oats, rye Not relevant as readily available Not relevant as readily available A cofactor for glutathione peroxidase, an enzyme that quenches reactive oxygen species

Belobrajdic and Bird

Belobrajdic and Bird Nutrition Journal 2013 12:62   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-62

Open Data