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Open Access Research

Effect of consumption of micronutrient enriched wheat steamed bread on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects

Lan Su-Que14, Meng Ya-Ning1, Li Xing-Pu13*, Zhang Ye-Lun13, Song Guang-Yao2* and Ma Hui-Juan2

Author Affiliations

1 Institute of Cereal and Oil Crops, Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, no. 162 Hengshan Street, Gaoxinqu, Shijiazhuang 050035, P. R. China

2 Hebei General Hospital, Shijiazhuang, P. R. China

3 Hebei Research Station of Crop Gene Resource & Germplasm Enhancement, Ministry of Agriculture, Shijiazhuang, P. R. China

4 Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang, P. R. China

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Nutrition Journal 2013, 12:64  doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-64

Published: 17 May 2013

Abstract

Background

Steamed wheat bread have previously been shown to induce comparatively high postprandial plasma glucose responses, on the contrary, buckwheat products induced lower postprandial plasma glucose. The present study was to assess the effects of micronutrient enriched bread wheat variety Jizi439 and buckwheat on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and diabetic subjects comparing with buckwheat and other bread wheat varieties.

Methods

Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of bread wheat variety Jizi439 on the postprandial plasma glucose levels of the randomly selected subjects. The first experiment involved three types of steamed bread with equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate fed to 10 normal weight young healthy subjects. Two types of steamed bread were made from two purple-grain bread wheat varieties, Jizi439 and Chu20, respectively, and the third type was made from the mixture of different white grain wheat varieties. Plasma glucose levels of each subject were measured at 15, 30, 45, 60, 120 min after eating. Glucose was used as a reference, the total area under curve (AUC) and glycemic index (GI) was calculated for test meal. The second experiment was performed among ten type 2 diabetics who were served equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate of steamed bread made from Jizi 439, the mixture of white grain bread wheat and buckwheat, respectively. The plasma glucose increment was determined two hours thereafter.

Results

In the first experiment, consumption of the steamed bread made from Jizi439 resulted in the least increase in plasma glucose and the GI was significantly lower than that of Chu20 and the mixture. In the second experiment, the average of postprandial 2 h plasma glucose increment of Jizi439 was 2.46 mmol/L which was significantly lower than that of the mixture of white wheat but was not significantly different from buckwheat.

Conclusions

The results indicated that consumption of Jizi439 steamed bread resulted in significantly lower plasma glucose in both healthy and diabetic subjects, compared with other types of test foods, except buckwheat bread. The steam bread made from Jizi439 would be an ideal food for preventing and treatment of diabetes.

Keywords:
Diabetes; Glycaemic index; Food choice; Functional foods; Health eating