Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study sample based on areca nut chewing categories
Characteristics Non-users Areca nut chewers P-value*
Raw areca nut users Areca with tobacco additives
Total participants, n(%) 722(67.5) 231(21.6) 117(10.9) _
Male sex, n(%) 419(70.0) 126(21.0) 54(9.0) 0.05
Age, mean (SD) 33.8(15.3) 33.9(15.6) 33.4(14.7) 0.95
Age, n(%)
   Age 16-39 470(67.3) 151(21.6) 77(11.0) 0.95
   Age 40-49 99(66.9) 32(21.6) 17(11.5)
   Age 50-59 87(69.1) 24(19.1) 15(11.9)
   Age 60-75 66(67.4) 24(24.5) 8(8.2)
Waist circumference, mean(SD) 80.3(12.1) 82.1(12.4) 84.0(12.3) 0.003
Central obesity, n(%) 231(32.0) 94(40.7) 57(48.7) <0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg, mean(SD) 123.6(19.0) 126.5(20.4) 131.0(21.4) <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg, mean(SD) 71.6(9.5) 73.1(9.8) 74.5(9.6) 0.003
Cholesterol level, mmol/L, mean(SD) 5.6(1.1) 5.8(1.2) 5.7(1.0) 0.31
High density lipoprotein, mmol/L, mean(SD) 1.4(0.4) 1.3(0.4) 1.3(0.4) 0.03
Serum triglyceride level, mmol/L, mean(SD) 1.4(0.9) 1.6(1.1) 1.6(1.0) 0.004
Blood glucose level, mmol/L, mean(SD) 4.8(0.9) 5.0(1.2) 5.3(2.0) <0.001
Social class
   Professionals 158(67.5) 44(18.8) 32(13.7) <0.001
   Non-manual workers 115(42.3) 113(41.5) 44(16.2)
   Manual workers 449(79.6) 74(13.1) 41(7.3)

*p-value for categorical variables was calculated by chi squared test and with ANOVA for continuous variables.

Shafique et al.

Shafique et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:67   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-67

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