Table 2

Prevalence rates of anemia among indigenous children < 60 months according to physical, demographic, and sanitation characteristics of the household, First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition, Brazil, 2008–2009
Characteristic studied N Prevalence (%) PR CI 95%
Type of flooring
  Ceramic 462 38.95 1.00 Reference
  Cement 1578 44.70 1.15 0.99-1.34
  Wood 1405 60.83 1.56 1.29-1.89
  Dirt 1922 56.55 1.45 1.23-1.72
Type of walls
  Brick 1863 42.74 1.00 Reference
  Mud 764 54.44 1.27 1.12-1.45
  Wood 1966 60.46 1.41 1.24-1.62
  Thatch 297 64.71 1.51 1.28-1.79
  Canvas, plastic, or other 498 49.54 1.16 1.00-1.34
Type of roofing
  Clay tile 1558 43.60 1.00 Reference
  Corrugated sheets 2054 52.34 1.20 1.04-1.39
  Wood or thatch 1735 60.87 1.40 1.22-1.59
  Canvas, plastic, or other 42 66.34 1.52 1.18-1.96
Electricity in the home
  Yes 3129 47.56 1.00 Reference
  Yes, but discontinuous 841 59.70 1.26 1.10.-1.43
  No 1414 59.14 1.24 1.12-1.38
No. of residents in household p = 0.000*
  ≤ 4 1273 46.01 1.00 Reference
  5–8 2641 50.84 1.10 1.02-1.20
  ≥ 9 1464 58.63 1.27 1.14-1.42
No. of children < 5 years old in household p = 0.000*
  1 1885 47.63 1.00 Reference
  2 2269 51.33 1.08 0.98-1.18
  3 868 56.95 1.20 1.08-1.32
  ≥ 4 355 61.67 1.29 1.12-1.49
Defecation location
  Indoor household facility 768 41.26 1.00 Reference
  Outdoor household facility 2719 53.33 1.29 1.10-1.51
  Outdoors in the open 1865 54.07 1.31 1.12-1.54
  Other 26 34.10 0.83 0.51-1.35
Predominant destination of the household trash
  Collected by removal service 640 44.00 1.00 Reference
  Buried, discarded, or burned in the village 4378 52.22 1.19 1.02-1.38
  Buried, discarded, or burned outside the village 305 58.17 1.32 1.03-1.70
  Discarded in a river, lake, or ocean 54 70.91 1.61 1.25-2.08
  Other 10 51.72 1.18 0.68-2.04
Source of drinking water
  Faucet inside house 804 45.87 1.00 Reference
  Faucet outside house 2639 51.78 1.13 1.00-1.28
  Shallow well 436 50.23 1.09 0.91-1.32
  River, lake, or reservoir 744 61.55 1.34 1.13-1.59
  Other 766 51.17 1.12 0.86-1.45

PR Prevalence ratio.

CI Confidence interval.

*χ2 test for linear trend.

Variable retained for multivariate analysis.

Leite et al.

Leite et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:69   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-69

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