Table 1

Characteristics of trials included in this systematic review and meta-analysis
Characteristic Reding[10] Bresci[11] Hayashi[16] Takuma[1]
Place Brussels, Belgium Pisa, Italy Osaka, Japan Okayama, Japan
Study Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Randomized, not blinded, placebo-controlled trial
Patients (n) 22 90 45 79
Sex (male/female) 15/7 56/34 23/17 40/39
Age (y) (placebo/zinc)* 52.7 ± 13.4/52.1 ± 9.9 49 ± 9/51 ± 9 65.1 ± 11.3/66.0 ± 9.9 66.5 ± 7.4/66.5 ± 5.7
Cause of cirrhosis (viral/alcoholic/other) ND 50/30/10 38/0/2 58/13/8
Child–Pugh classification (A/B/C) 2/17/3 0/65/25 ND 1 15/49/15
Hepatic encephalopathy grade (1/2) 22/0 90/0 ND 1 49/30
Baseline serum zinc levels (μg/dL) [placebo/zinc]* 60.3 ± 17.9/64.5 ± 21 52 ± 5/56 ± 6 60.2 ± 9/58.4 ± 9.2 51.6 ± 13.3/48.9 ± 9.3
Baseline NCT (placebo/zinc) 56.2 ± 25.4/55.5 ± 18.9 62 ± 10/66 ± 9 ND

A: 72.6 ± 30.5/78.8 ± 27

B: 141.6 ± 31.3/145.8 ± 30.4

Intervention Zinc acetate 600 mg/d for 7 d Zinc acetate 600 mg/d for 6 mo Zinc sulfate 600 mg/d (blood zinc level <7.6 mol/L) and 200 mg/d (blood zinc level 7.6–10.37 mol/L) Polaprezinc 225 mg (containing 51 mg of zinc and 174 mg of L-carnosine)/d for 6 mo
Comparison Placebo Standard therapy Branched-chain amino acids Standard therapy
Outcome reported Effect of oral zinc on HE Effect of oral zinc on HE Effect of oral zinc in patients with hepatic cirrhosis Effect of oral zinc on HRQOL and HE in patients with liver cirrhosis

ND No data, NCT Number connection test, HRQOL Health-related quality of life, HE Hepatic encephalopathy. *mean ± SD.

Chavez-Tapia et al.

Chavez-Tapia et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:74   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-74

Open Data