Table 2

Anthropometric and metabolic variables before and after intervention in variables throughout the study
Calcium+D (n=22) Control (n=21) Pa
Pre Post Pre Post Time Treatment Time×Treatment (adjustedb)
Body weight (kg) 65.7±7.6 c 61.5±7.2 66.3±8.3 62.8±9.7 <0.001 0.69 0.25 (0.16)
BMI (kg/m2) 26.0±1.8 24.2±1.8 25.7±1.7 24.2±2.2 <0.001 0.86 0.22 (0.19)
Fat mass (kg) 20.4±3.3 17.6±3.5 19.8±3.1 17.9±3.9 <0.001 0.73 0.02 (0.01)
Fat percentage (%) 31.0±3.0 28.4±3.5 29.9±2.8 28.4±3.0 <0.001 0.55 0.02 (0.02)
Lean mass (kg) 41.6±5.2 40.5±4.5 42.8±5.9 41.3±6.2 <0.001 0.54 0.31 (0.43)
Visceral fat mass (kg) d 2.2±0.5 1.7±0.4 2.1±0.5 1.9±0.6 <0.001 0.75 0.01 (0.01)
VFA (cm2) d 56.6±12.2 44.6±12.6 54.7±13.4 48.2±15.5 <0.001 0.85 0.02 (0.02)
Waist (cm) 81.5±4.1 75.2±5.3 80.9±5.6 76.3±6.8 <0.001 0.85 0.34 (0.26)
Systolic BP (mmHg) d 119.2±10.5 109.6±9.9 123.0±10.5 111.9±10.4 <0.001 0.20 0.64 (0.67)
Diastolic BP (mmHg) d 70.7±7.1 64.2±4.7 70.0±7.8 65.4±6.3 0.001 0.79 0.58 (0.62)
Glucose (mmol/L) 4.62±0.26 4.89±0.37 4.55±0.34 4.91±0.31 <0.001 0.96 0.22 (0.16)
Insulin (mIU/L) 10.49±5.04 9.24±5.36 9.07±4.02 9.23±4.62 0.58 0.52 0.44 (0.41)
TC (mmol/L) 3.89±0.52 3.78±0.61 4.11±0.43 3.93±0.48 0.03 0.58 0.57 (0.42)
TG (mmol/L) 0.76±0.48 0.78±0.25 0.76±0.32 0.86±0.67 0.36 0.75 0.61 (0.61)
HDL (mmol/L) 1.49±0.39 1.59±0.36 1.66±0.34 1.51±0.30 0.22 0.53 0.11 (0.19)
LDL (mmol/L) 1.89±0.50 2.41±0.43 1.98±0.50 2.10±0.51 0.23 0.43 0.62 (0.75)

Calcium+D, Calcium+vitamin D3. VFA, visceral fat area. Waist, waist circumference BP, blood pressure. TC, total cholesterol. TG, triglyceride. HDL, high-density lipoproteins. LDL, low-density lipoproteins. Change values=[(mean values wk 12)-(mean values wk 0)].

a Repeated measures analysis of variance.

b Adjusted for age, initial calcium intake and baseline body weight.

c Mean ± standard deviation (all such values).

d n=20 and 19 for Calcium+D and control groups, respectively.

Zhu et al.

Zhu et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:8   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-8

Open Data