Table 4

Unadjusted serum concentrations of select biochemical indicators for pregnant Peruvian women across trimesters1
Biochemical indicator2,3 Trimester 1 Trimester 2 Trimester 3 p-value5
n GM (95% CI)4 n GM (95% CI) n GM (95% CI)
Retinol 66 1.40 (1.34-1.46)a 65 1.54 (1.46-1.63)b 62 1.39 (1.31-1.47)a 0.001
Alpha-tocopherol 66 21.3 (20.3-22.5)a 65 29.0 (27.5-30.6)b 62 32.9 (31.4-34.5)c ≤ 0.0001
Gamma-tocopherol 66 2.67 (2.44-2.92)a 65 3.35 (3.06-3.68)b 62 3.49 (3.17-3.83)b ≤ 0.0001
Alpha-carotene 66 0.18 (0.16-0.20)a 65 0.19 (0.17-0.21)a 62 0.22 (0.19-0.25)b 0.024
Beta-carotene 66 0.20 (0.18-0.23)a 65 0.19 (0.17-0.23)a 62 0.25 (0.21-0.30)b 0.014
Cis-beta-carotene 0 NC6 53 0.017 (0.013-0.019)a 18 0.028 (0.020-0.037)b 0.01
Beta-cryptoxanthin 66 0.41 (0.35-0.49)a 65 0.40 (0.34-0.47)a 62 0.46 (0.40-0.54)a 0.31
Lutein + zeaxanthin 66 0.41 (0.37-0.45)a 65 0.58 (0.52-0.63)b 62 0.61 (0.57-0.67)b ≤ 0.0001
Trans-lycopene 66 0.047 (0.041-0.054)a 65 0.052 (0.045-0.061)a 62 0.080 (0.065-0.095)b ≤ 0.0001
Total-lycopene 66 0.14 (0.12-0.16)a 65 0.13 (0.11-0.15)a 62 0.20 (0.18-0.24)b ≤ 0.0001
Ferritin7 78 102 (100–141)a 61 37.9 (31.3-45.8)b 53 23.4 (19.5-27.9)c ≤ 0.0001
Iron 78 16.1 (14.6-17.8)a 64 11.8 (10.5-13.2)b 60 8.47 (7.43-9.71)c ≤ 0.0001
Unbound iron binding capacity 78 42.5 (40.1-45.1)a 63 64.6 (61.2-68.3)b 41 73.5 (67.9-79.5)c ≤ 0.0001
Total iron binding capacity8 78 60.8 (58.9-62.7)a 63 78.2 (75.2-81.4)b 40 83.9 (77.9-90.4)b ≤ 0.0001
Transferrin saturation9 78 26.6 (20.0–30.0)a 63 15.2 (10.0–20.0)b 40 10.8 (10.0–15.0)b 0.0001
Selenium7 78 1.51 (1.48-1.55)a 64 1.42 (1.37-1.48)b 62 1.37 (1.30-1.43)b 0.0003

1Does not include cord serum.

2Retinyl palmitate and retinyl stearate were excluded because ≥ 40% of their respective values were < LOD.

3All values expressed in μmol/L unless otherwise noted.

4GM geometric means; 95% CI = 95% confidence interval.

5p-values were calculated using a Mixed Effects Model procedure.

6NC not calculated. Because of laboratory quality control issues, Trimester 1 samples were not analyzed. Therefore, the sample sizes across trimesters are lower for CBC compared with the remaining biochemical indicators.

7Values expressed in pmol/L (1 pmol/L = 2.247 ng/ml).

8TIBC total iron-binding capacity. TIBC = IRN + UIBC.

9Transferrin saturation = IRN/TIBC. Values expressed in %.

Note: the superscript letters “a”, “b” and “c” are used to distinguish whether trimesters have statistically significantly (p < 0.05) different biomarker concentrations. Trimesters with different letter superscript have significantly different concentrations while those with the same superscript letters do not.

Horton et al.

Horton et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:80   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-80

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