## Table 4 |
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Unadjusted serum concentrations of select biochemical indicators for pregnant Peruvian
women across trimesters^{1} |
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Biochemical indicator^{2,3} |
Trimester 1 |
Trimester 2 |
Trimester 3 |
p-value^{5} |
|||

n |
GM (95% CI)^{4} |
n |
GM (95% CI) |
n |
GM (95% CI) |
||

Retinol | 66 | 1.40 (1.34-1.46)^{a} |
65 | 1.54 (1.46-1.63)^{b} |
62 | 1.39 (1.31-1.47)^{a} |
0.001 |

Alpha-tocopherol | 66 | 21.3 (20.3-22.5)^{a} |
65 | 29.0 (27.5-30.6)^{b} |
62 | 32.9 (31.4-34.5)^{c} |
≤ 0.0001 |

Gamma-tocopherol | 66 | 2.67 (2.44-2.92)^{a} |
65 | 3.35 (3.06-3.68)^{b} |
62 | 3.49 (3.17-3.83)^{b} |
≤ 0.0001 |

Alpha-carotene | 66 | 0.18 (0.16-0.20)^{a} |
65 | 0.19 (0.17-0.21)^{a} |
62 | 0.22 (0.19-0.25)^{b} |
0.024 |

Beta-carotene | 66 | 0.20 (0.18-0.23)^{a} |
65 | 0.19 (0.17-0.23)^{a} |
62 | 0.25 (0.21-0.30)^{b} |
0.014 |

Cis-beta-carotene | 0 | NC^{6} |
53 | 0.017 (0.013-0.019)^{a} |
18 | 0.028 (0.020-0.037)^{b} |
0.01 |

Beta-cryptoxanthin | 66 | 0.41 (0.35-0.49)^{a} |
65 | 0.40 (0.34-0.47)^{a} |
62 | 0.46 (0.40-0.54)^{a} |
0.31 |

Lutein + zeaxanthin | 66 | 0.41 (0.37-0.45)^{a} |
65 | 0.58 (0.52-0.63)^{b} |
62 | 0.61 (0.57-0.67)^{b} |
≤ 0.0001 |

Trans-lycopene | 66 | 0.047 (0.041-0.054)^{a} |
65 | 0.052 (0.045-0.061)^{a} |
62 | 0.080 (0.065-0.095)^{b} |
≤ 0.0001 |

Total-lycopene | 66 | 0.14 (0.12-0.16)^{a} |
65 | 0.13 (0.11-0.15)^{a} |
62 | 0.20 (0.18-0.24)^{b} |
≤ 0.0001 |

Ferritin^{7} |
78 | 102 (100–141)^{a} |
61 | 37.9 (31.3-45.8)^{b} |
53 | 23.4 (19.5-27.9)^{c} |
≤ 0.0001 |

Iron | 78 | 16.1 (14.6-17.8)^{a} |
64 | 11.8 (10.5-13.2)^{b} |
60 | 8.47 (7.43-9.71)^{c} |
≤ 0.0001 |

Unbound iron binding capacity | 78 | 42.5 (40.1-45.1)^{a} |
63 | 64.6 (61.2-68.3)^{b} |
41 | 73.5 (67.9-79.5)^{c} |
≤ 0.0001 |

Total iron binding capacity^{8} |
78 | 60.8 (58.9-62.7)^{a} |
63 | 78.2 (75.2-81.4)^{b} |
40 | 83.9 (77.9-90.4)^{b} |
≤ 0.0001 |

Transferrin saturation^{9} |
78 | 26.6 (20.0–30.0)^{a} |
63 | 15.2 (10.0–20.0)^{b} |
40 | 10.8 (10.0–15.0)^{b} |
0.0001 |

Selenium^{7} |
78 | 1.51 (1.48-1.55)^{a} |
64 | 1.42 (1.37-1.48)^{b} |
62 | 1.37 (1.30-1.43)^{b} |
0.0003 |

^{1}Does not include cord serum.

^{2}Retinyl palmitate and retinyl stearate were excluded because ≥ 40% of their respective
values were < LOD.

^{3}All values expressed in μmol/L unless otherwise noted.

^{4}*GM* geometric means; 95% CI = 95% confidence interval.

^{5}*p*-values were calculated using a Mixed Effects Model procedure.

^{6}*NC* not calculated. Because of laboratory quality control issues, Trimester 1 samples
were not analyzed. Therefore, the sample sizes across trimesters are lower for CBC
compared with the remaining biochemical indicators.

^{7}Values expressed in pmol/L (1 pmol/L = 2.247 ng/ml).

^{8}*TIBC* total iron-binding capacity. TIBC = IRN + UIBC.

^{9}Transferrin saturation = IRN/TIBC. Values expressed in %.

Note: the superscript letters “a”, “b” and “c” are used to distinguish whether trimesters have statistically significantly (p < 0.05) different biomarker concentrations. Trimesters with different letter superscript have significantly different concentrations while those with the same superscript letters do not.

Horton * et al.*

Horton * et al.* *Nutrition Journal* 2013 **12**:80 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-80