Table 1

Comparison of muscle damage parameters
Rest Placebo Fermented milk
CPK (IU·L-1) 95.7 ± 7.2 192.8 ± 26.9** 152.3 ± 14.7*
Muscle soreness
 Pectoralis major (score) N.D 5.2 ± 0.5 4.3 ± 0.5#
 Quadriceps (score) N.D 3.3 ± 0.5 3.0 ± 0.5
 Gluteus maximus (score) N.D 5.6 ± 0.5 5.3 ± 0.5
 Total score (score) N.D 14.2 ± 1.2 12.6 ± 1.1#

Values are represented as mean ± standard error for 18 subjects. *Statistically significant differences were at the level of p < 0.05 vs. rest. **Statistically significant differences at the level of p < 0.01 vs. rest. #Statistically significant differences at the level of p < 0.05 vs. placebo. CPK, creatine phosphokinase; N.D., Not Detected. The trials analyzed include: rest, rest with placebo intake; placebo, exercise with placebo intake; fermented milk, exercise with fermented milk intake.

Iwasa et al.

Iwasa et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:83   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-83

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