Figure 4.

Proposed working model. GLN is protective in IEC-6 cells by activating PI3-K signaling which prevents FN expression and increases HSP70 expression after thermal injury. Furthermore, GLN is protective by dephosphorylating p38MAPK via GLN-mediated FN-Integrin signaling after HS. GLN-mediated PI3-K/Akt signaling, however, seems to be independent of FN-Integrin signaling.

Niederlechner et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:88   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-88
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