Proposed working model. GLN is protective in IEC-6 cells by activating PI3-K signaling which prevents FN expression and increases HSP70 expression after thermal injury. Furthermore, GLN is protective by dephosphorylating p38MAPK via GLN-mediated FN-Integrin signaling after HS. GLN-mediated PI3-K/Akt signaling, however, seems to be independent of FN-Integrin signaling.
Niederlechner et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:88 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-88