## Table 8 |
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Within–person change Model: estimated change in energy intake associated with beverage
substitution |
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Model 3 Estimated effect of substituting each beverage type * |
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B |
P value |
95% Confidence interval for B |
||

Change in: |
Lower |
Upper |
||

Hot beverages (100 g) | −15 | <0.0001 | −18 | −12 |

Milk (100 g) | 15 | <0.0001 | 8 | 22 |

Fruit juice (100 g) | 25 | <0.0001 | 15 | 35 |

Caloric soft drink (100 g) | 23 | <0.0001 | 18 | 27 |

Diet soft drink (100 g) | −15 | <0.0001 | −20 | −9 |

Alcohol (100 g) | 17 | <0.0001 | 15 | 19 |

Bottled water (100 g) | −21 | <0.0001 | −27 | −15 |

Tap water (100 g) | −31 | <0.0001 | −35 | −28 |

Model 4 Estimated effect of caloric beverages replacing non-caloric beverages |
||||

B |
P value |
95% Confidence Interval for B |
||

Lower |
Upper |
|||

Change in total beverages (100 g) | 12 | <0.0001 | 10 | 14 |

Change in caloric beverages (100 g) | 29 | <0.0001 | 27 | 32 |

Model 5 Estimated effect of caloric beverages replacing caloric beverages, holding
food energy constant |
||||

B |
P value |
95% Confidence Interval for B |
||

Lower Bound |
Upper Bound |
|||

Change in food energy (100 kcal) | 100 | <0.0001 | 99.9 | 101 |

Change in total beverages (100 g) | 1 | <0.0001 | 0.9 | 1.8 |

Change in caloric beverages (100 g) | 35 | <0.0001 | 35 | 36 |

*Model 3 is a composite of 8 regressions, one for each beverage, adjusted for change in total weight of beverages; coefficients express the change in energy intake associated with a change in one beverage type and a corresponding reduction in others, i.e. constant total beverage intake.

Gibson and Shirreffs

Gibson and Shirreffs *Nutrition Journal* 2013 **12**:9 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-9