Table 2

Comparison of anthropometric and metabolic variables across groups
Characteristic Group 1 (n = 19) Group 2 (n = 16) Group 3 (n = 16) Group 4 (n = 18)
Age (years) 52.16 (11.69) 50.37 (8.52) 55.56 (9.42) 55.61 (6.77)
Anthropometry
Body weight (kg) 59.73 (6.76) 66.22 (5.68) 79.55 (12.58)a, b 79.61 (13.85)a, b
BMI (kg.m-2) 23.09 (21.7-24.6) 24.86 (23.5-26.6)a 30.21 (27.5-32.0)a, b 30.84 (26.0-36.3)a, b
BMI categories
Healthy weight (18.5-24.9 kg.m-2) 17 (90%) 8 (50%) 0 1 (6%)
Overweight (25–29.9 kg.m-2) 2 (10%) 8 (50%) 10 (62%) 8 (44%)
Obese (> 30 kg.m-2) 0 0 6 (38%) 9 (50%)
Waist circumference (cm) 74.05 (4.65) 83.20 (2.54)a 95.18 (6.56)a, b 97.45 (10.57)a, b
Percentage body fat (%) 31.15 (3.69) 33.41 (3.08) 40.37 (3.04)a, b 40.19 (5.21)a, b
Fat free mass (kg) 40.978 (3.59) 44.08 (4.19) 47.22 (5.77)a 47.12 (5.37)a
Blood pressure
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 114.74 (15.57) 117.00 (9.39) 119.09 (9.98) 125.92 (13.49)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 77.29 (9.96) 75.69 (4.79) 78.50 (8.73) 80.56 (7.91)
Hypertensive (BP >130/85 mmHg) 4 (21%) 2 (13%) 5 (31%) 9 (50%)
Anti-hypertensive medication 2 (10%) 2 (13%) 4 (25%) 6 (33%)
Lipid profile
TC (mmol.L-1) 5.24 (0.98) 5.33 (1.09) 4.61 (0.53) 5.33 (0.93)
Dyslipidemia (TC > 5.2 mmol.L-1) 9 (47) 9 (56) 3 (19) 9 (50)
HDLC (mmol.L-1) 1.83 (0.41) 1.89 (0.51) 1.62 (0.36) 1.40 (0.41)a, b
LDLC (mmol.L-1) 2.98 (0.78) 3.13 (1.32) 2.38 (0.67) 3.11 (0.89)
TG (mmol.L-1) 0.92 (0.68-1.09) 1.07 (0.7-1.4) 1.16 (0.8-1.6) 1.46 (1.0-1.8)a, b
Cholesterol medications 0 1 (6%) 3 (19%) 0
Glucose metabolism
Fasting glucose (mg.dL-1) 4.72 (4.3-5.0) 4.81 (4.7-5.0) 4.86 (4.6-5.2) 5.32 (4.8-5.5)a, b, c
Fasting insulin (mU.L-1) 6.73 (5.5-6.9) 7.30 (5.7-9.8) 8.38 (7.3-9.6) 14.49 (11.6-19.4)a, b, c
Hyperinsulinemia (>12 mU.L-1) 0 0 1 (6%) 14 (78%)
Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) 1.42 (1.1-1.8) 1.61 (1.2-2.1) 1.81 (1.4-2.1) 3.43 (2.5-4.2)a, b, c
HBA1c (mmol.mol-1) 35.21 (33.0-38.0) 35.25 (33.5-37.0) 35.75 (34.0-37.0) 38.39 (33.5-41.0)a, b
Glucose medications 0 0 0 0
Inflammatory marker
CRP (mg.L-1) 1.53 (1.0-1.8) 1.89 (1.0-2.2) 2.09 (1.1-2.4) 4.98 (1.4-7.0)a, b, c
Metabolic syndrome 0 3 (19%) 5 (31%) 12 (67%)

Data are displayed as mean (± standard deviation) for normally distributed variables and median (inter-quartile range) for non-normally distributed variables and as frequency (percentage) for categorical variables. Abbreviations: kg kilogram, BMI body mass index, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triglycerides, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment index, HBA1c glycosylated haemoglobin A1c, CRP C - reactive protein.

a = significantly different from Group 1; b = significantly different from Group 2; c = significantly different from Group 3.

Guinan et al.

Guinan et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:99   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-99

Open Data