Table 2

Acute effects of the type of dietary fats on inflammatory response in obese or overweight individuals
Subjects: n (F/M) Postprandial duration Test meal Inflammatory response in overweight/obese individuals Remarks References
Overweight: 13 (-/13) 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 min, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 h

SFA: 56.6 g fat (33.9 g SFA)

2 muffins with butter and 250 ml water

IL-6, TNF-α, sVCAM-1: SFA ↑, PUFA ↓

MCP-1: ↓ over time; NS sICAM-1: = ; NS

Small sample size [67]

n-6 PUFA: 60.5 g fat (12.9 g SFA, 21.8 g PUFA)

2 muffins with 40 g butter and 10 g margarine, and 250 ml water

A low fat lunch was served after 3 h
Lean: 14 (14/-) Obese: 15 (15/-) 0, 1, 4, 6 h

SFA: 71 g fat (18 g palmitate)

Instant potato with 16 g cream/kg body weight, 100 ml hot water

IL-6: ↓ at 1 h, ↑ at 6 h; NS

IL-8, TNF-α: =; NS

Timing of menstrual cycle and oral contraceptive usage were not taken into account [16]

MUFA: 72 g fat (9 g palmitate)

Instant potato with 0.6 g/kg body weight of olive oil, 160 ml hot water

Subjects with hypertension and dyslipidemia were included
n-6 PUFA:72 g fat (5 g palmitate ) Instant potato with 0.6 g/kg body weight of canola oil, 160 ml hot water

Test meals were not iso-caloric

Small sample size

LFM–potato: 12 g fat (3 g palmitate)

Instant potato, 160 ml hot water.

LFM – bran: 13 g fat (3 g palmitate)

All-Bran, 40 ml trim milk, and 2 cooked eggs

*test meals for obese subjects only
Lean: 18 (-/18) Obese: 18 (-/18) 0, 2, 4 h

SFA: 95 g fat (51 g SFA)

Shakes containing low fat yogurt, low fat milk, strawberry flavor, sugar and 95 g palm oil

IL-8: ↑ over time; NS

IL-6: ↓ over time; NS

CRP: =; NS

Short postprandial period

Small sample size

[61]

MUFA: 95 g fat (8 g SFA)

Shakes containing low fat yogurt, low fat milk, strawberry flavor, sugar and 95 g high oleic sunflower oil

n-3 PUFA: 95 g fat (32 g SFA)

Shakes containing low fat yogurt, low fat milk, strawberry flavor, sugar and 40 g palm oil + 55 g Marinol D40 (40% DHA).

Lean: 18 (-/18) Obese: 18 (-/18) Obese diabetic: 6 (-/6) 0, 2, 4 h

SFA: 95 g fat (51 g SFA)

Shakes containing low fat yogurt, low fat milk, strawberry flavor, sugar and 95 g palm oil

IL-1β and TNF-α: =; NS

PBMC MCP-1 and IL-8: MUFA and n-3 PUFA ↑↑, SFA ↑ at 4 h

Short postprandial period

Small sample size

[70]

MUFA: 95 g fat (8 g SFA)

Shakes containing low fat yogurt, low fat milk, strawberry flavor, sugar and 95 g high oleic sunflower oil

n-3 PUFA: 95 g fat (32 g SFA)

Shakes containing low fat yogurt, low fat milk, strawberry flavor, sugar and 40 g palm oil + 55 g Marinol D40 (40% DHA)

Obese/overweight: 10 (6/4) 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 h

SFA: 83 g fat

Refined palm oil blended with 1% milk, strawberry flavored syrup, low fat frozen, and non-fat dry milk powder.

CRP: ↑; over time NS

TNF-α: ↓ over time; NS

NF-κB AUC (4 h): PUFA ↑↑, SFA↑

VCAM-1: =; NS

ICAM-1: =; MUFA ↓↓ vs. SFA, n-3 PUFA

Small sample size

Test meals were not iso-caloric

[71]

MUFA: 83 g fat

Refined olive oil blended with 1% milk, strawberry flavored syrup, low fat frozen, and non-fat dry milk powder.

n-3 PUFA: 85 g fat

Refined olive oil + 4 g n-3FA from 8 g fish oil supplement pills (300 mg EPA, 200 mg DHA/g), blended with 1% milk, strawberry flavored syrup, low fat frozen, and non-fat dry milk powder.

LFM, low fat meal; SFA, saturated fats; MUFA, monounsaturated fats; PUFA, polyunsaturated fats; % en, percentage energy; IL, interleukin; hsCRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor- alpha; sICAM-1, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1; sVCAM-1, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1; TAG, triacylglycerols; MCP-1, monochemoattractant protein-1; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells AUC, area under the curve; ↓, reduced postprandial concentrations; ↑, increased postprandial concentrations; =, no postprandial/after meal effect; ↑↑, higher postprandial increment compared to other meals; NS, no significant difference between meals.

Teng et al.

Teng et al. Nutrition Journal 2014 13:12   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-13-12

Open Data