Table 3

Chronic effects of the type of dietary fats on low grade inflammation in obese or overweight individuals
Subjects: n (F/M) Design Dietary intervention Inflammatory response Remarks References
Overweight/obese: 14 (14/-) Crossover; 3-week, 1 week wash-out

PUFA

40% en total fat (25% en PUFA, 8.5% en SFA)

Fat from vegetable sources

CRP: PUFA↓ vs baseline

IL-18: NS vs baseline

Small sample size

Dyslipidemic and postmenopausal women were recruited

[74]

SFA

42% en total fat (29% en SFA, 3% en PUFA)

Dairy and animal fats

*No comparison was made between diets Short dietary intervention
Iso-caloric diet (2738 kcal) with ~21% en exchange between PUFA and SFA

Abdominally overweight: 61 (gender not specified)

n-6 PUFA:32 SFA: 29

Parallel; 10-week

n-6 PUFA

40% en total fat (10% en SFA, 13.5% en LA)

Scones (baked using sunflower oil), margarine, sunflower oil and sunflower seeds

IL-1RA, TNF-R2: n-6 PUFA↓ vs SFA

CRP, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-10: NS

Subjects used antihypertensive and lipid lowering drugs. [75]

SFA

40% en total fat (20% en SFA, 4% en LA)

Scones (baked using butter), butter and butter

Low compliance: n-6 PUFA diet (n = 27); SFA diet (n = 19)
Iso-caloric diet (2000 kcal) consisted with 10% en exchange between n-6 PUFA and SFA. Key fat sources were provided

Overweight and obese: 76 (63/13)

Krill: 25 (22/3) Menhaden: 26 (21/5) Control:25 (20/5)

Parallel; 4-week

Krill oil: 90 mg DHA + 216 mg EPA

Menhaden oil: 178 mg DHA + 212 mg EPA

Control: 2 g olive oil

4 x 500 mg capsules/day for each supplementation

hsCRP: NS Habitual diet was not controlled [78]
Sedentary overweight: 138 (93/45) Parallel: 4-month

n-3 PUFA: 2.5 g/day

Fish oil (6 x 500 mg capsules/d);EPA:DHA ratio is 7:1

TNF-α, IL-6: both doses ↓ vs placebo; NS Calorie and fatty acid composition of habitual diets were not standardized [79]

n-3 PUFA 2.5 g/day: 46 (29/17)

n-3 PUFA: 1.25 g/day: 46 (28/18)

Placebo: 46 (36/10)

n-3 PUFA: 1.25 g/day

Placebo: 3 g

Mixture of palm, olive, soy, canola and cocoa butter oils; (SFA:MUFA:PUFA ratio = 37:42:21)

Severely obese:55 (46/9) n-3 PUFA: 27 (23/4) Control: 28 (23/5) Parallel: 8-week

n-3 PUFA: 4 x 1 g capsules/day (3.36 g EPA + DHA)

Control: 5 g butterfat

IL-6: n-3 PUFA ↓

hsCRP: NS

30 subjects used supplementary medication such as antihypertension and proton pump inhibitors

Incomplete dietary records

[82]
Iso-caloric diet consisted of 30% en fat, 15% protein and 55% en carbohydrate SAT gene expression of CCL2, CCL3, H1F1A and TGFB1: n-3 PUFA ↓
EPA- and DHA-derived eicosanoids synthesis in SAT and VAT: n-3 PUFA ↑
Abdominally overweight/ obese: 51 (40/11) Parallel: 8-week

ALA: 11 g/day flaxseed oil

Control: habitual diet

IL-6, TNF-α, CRP: NS [83]
ALA: 27 (21/6) Control: 24 (19/5) Iso-caloric diet (~2000 kcal) with a balance of SFA and MUFA intake

% en, percentage energy; IL-1RA, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist; TNF-R2, tumor necrosis factor- receptor 2; hsCRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; IL, interleukin; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor- alpha; ALA, alpha linolenic acid; SFA, saturated fats; MUFA, monounsaturated fats; PUFA, polyunsaturated fats; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; VAT, visceral adipose tissue; SAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue; CCL, chemokine (C-C) motif ligand; HIF1A, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha; TGFB1, transforming growth factor β1; NS, no significant difference between diets; ↓, reduced concentrations; ↑, increased concentrations.

Teng et al.

Teng et al. Nutrition Journal 2014 13:12   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-13-12

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