Table 5

Chronic effects of restricted calorie diets with varying type of fats on low grade inflammation in obese and overweight individuals
Subjects: n (F/M) Design Dietary intervention Inflammatory response Remarks References
Overweight: 33 (22/11) Parallel: 12-week n-3 PUFA: 6 capsules of 1 g fish oil daily (0.42 g EPA + 1.62 g DHA/d) Body weight: n-3 PUFA ↓4.2 kg, placebo ↓ 3.17 kg; NS [86]
n-3 PUFA:15 (10/5) Placebo:18 (12/6) Placebo (MUFA): 6 capsules of 1 gunola oil daily Leptin, adiponectin, hsCRP, IL-6: NS
Daily intake were 5000 kJ for female and 6000 kJ for males with ~30% en total fat intake TNF-α: n-3 PUFA ↓ vs baseline; NS
Overweight: 26 (16/10) Parallel: 14-week

Phase 1 (lead-in):

34.3% en fat (4.8% en n-6, 0.5% en n-3 PUFA)

Body weight after Phase 3:

Both diets ↓ (~3.5% body weight); NS

[87]

n-3 PUFA: 13 (8/5)

control: 13 (8/5)

Phase 1: 2-week

Phase 2: 2-week

Phase 3:12-week

Both n-3 PUFA and control groups consumed the same diet

Phase 2 (iso-caloric, 1800 kcal)):

n-3 PUFA: 12 capsules of 725 mg fish oil (2.88 g n-3 PUFA)

34.7% en fat (n-6 PUFA, 4.9% en, n-3 PUFA, 3.6% en)

Main source of n-3 PUFAs: canola and flaxseed oils, and margarines rich in ALA

Adiponectin: both diets ↑ vs baseline; NS

HMW adiponectin: NS

Control: high oleic sunflower oil capsules

34.3% en total fat (4.8% en n-6, 0.5% en n-3 PUFA)

Main source of oils: high oleic safflower and sunflower oils, and margarines based on these oils

Phase 3 (ad libitum):

115% of the amount of food provided in phase 1 and 2

Obese: 11 (-/11)

Phase 1:11(-/11)

Phase 2:8 (-/8)

Cross-over

Phase 1: 6-week

Phase 2: 8-week

(very low calorie diet, 4-week; restricted energy diet, 2-week; weight sustained diet, 2-week)

Phase 1 (fish oil study):

n-3 PUFA: 0.6 g EPA + 0.5 g DHA

Control: 6 capsules 500 mg of high oleic sunflower oil with ad-libitum Dutch diet

No fish consumption is allowed

Postprandial

IL-6, CRP, sTNF-R55, sTNF-R75, PAI-1 antigen: weight loss ↓: NS

TNF-α: NS

Small sample size [5]

Phase 2 (weight loss period):

Very low calorie diet: 480 kcal/day with shakes + 250 g vegetables and fruits except banana

Postprandial challenges at the end of each intervention: 0, 2, 4 h Restricted energy diet: 1000 kcal/day with mixed solid energy-restricted diet with a recommended composition

Weight sustained diet: Diet at commensurate calories to maintain the newly achieved weights

Postprandial meals: 50.1 g fat, milkshake

Obese: 11 (-/11) Cross-over

Phase 1 (fish oil study):

n-3 PUFA: 0.6 g EPA + 0.5 g DHA

Fasting

sICAM-1, hsCRP: weight loss ↓; NS

sE-sel, MCP-1: NS

Small sample size [6]

Phase 1:11(-/11)

Phase 2:8 (-/8)

Phase 1: 6-week

Phase 2: 8-week (very low calorie diet, 4-week; restricted energy diet, 2-week; weight sustained diet, 2-week)

Control: 6 capsules 500 mg of high oleic sunflower oil

with ad-libitum Dutch diet

No fish consumption is allowed

Postprandial sICAM, hsCRP: weight loss ↓

MCP1: PUFA & weight loss ↓

sel: NS

Phase 2 (weight loss period):

Very low calorie diet: 480 kcal/day with shakes + 250 g vegetables and fruits except banana

Postprandial challenges at the end of each intervention: 0, 2, 4 h

Restricted energy diet: 1000 kcal/day with mixed solid energy-restricted diet with a recommended composition

Weight sustained diet: Diet at commensurate calories to maintain the newly achieved weights

Postprandial meals: 50.1g fat, milkshake

% en, percentage energy; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; HMW, high molecular weight; MUFA, monounsaturated fats; PUFA, polyunsaturated fats; hsCRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; IL, interleukin; PAI-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; sTNF-R55, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 55; sTNF-R75, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 75; sICAM-1, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1; sE-sel, soluble E-selectin; MCP-1, monochemoattractant protein-1; NS, no significant difference between diets; ↓, reduced concentrations; ↑, increased concentrations.

Teng et al.

Teng et al. Nutrition Journal 2014 13:12   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-13-12

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