Schematic representation of probiotic actions in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Probiotic consumption increases the number of bifidobacteria, and increased expression of adhesion proteins reduces intestinal permeability, impairing the activation of TLR4 by LPS. As result, NFkB activation pathways are blocked. The induction of TH17 cells is also inhibited, preventing pancreatic infiltration of CD8+ T cells.
Gomes et al. Nutrition Journal 2014 13:60 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-13-60