Table 1

General maternal characteristics during pregnancy, neonatal anthropometry and comparison of control and intervention (low glycaemic index diet) groups
n Intervention Control Total p-value
Mother Age (yrs) 542 32.83 ± 3.97 32.91 ± 3.91 32.87 ± 3.93 0.824
Mother Height (cm) 542 165.58 ± 12.29 165.03 ± 11.54 165.27 ± 11.86 0.591
Mother Weight (kg) 542 72.45 ± 12.95 72.32 ± 12.97 72.38 ± 12.94 0.905
Mother BMI1 (kg/m2) 542 26.19 ± 4.35 26.38 ± 4.42 26.30 ± 4.38 0.616
Gestational weight gain (kg) 273 12.48 ± 4.40 14.13 ± 4.55 13.39 ± 4.55 0.003
Postprandial glucose* 537 6.47 ± 1.42 6.77 ± 1.77 6.64 ± 1.63 0.031
Mother well-being% score 508 56.37 ± 15.38 60.21 ± 15.19 58.48 ± 15.37 0.005
Days per week walking ≥30 min2 426 3.55 ± 1.86 3.44 ± 1.74 3.48 ± 1.79 0.527
Moderate activity (min per week) 308 70.80 ± 49.70 61.80 ± 36.64 66.20 ± 43.46 0.066
T1 Energy Intake (kcal/d) 521 1828.25 ± 407.98 1874.02 ± 474.10 1854.47 ± 446.12 0.245
T2 Energy Intake (kcal/d) 529 1803.43 ± 440.82 1943.24 ± 476.75 1883.50 ± 467.54 0.001
T3 Energy Intake (kcal/d) 541 1832.55 ± 424.02 1932.42 ± 472.56 1889.62 ± 454.91 0.011
T1 Protein Intake (%TE) 521 17.23 ± 3.04 16.80 ± 3.10 16.98 ± 3.08 0.114
T2 Protein Intake (%TE) 529 17.79 ± 3.16 16.75 ± 2.92 17.21 ± 3.07 <0.001
T3 Protein Intake (%TE) 541 17.62 ± 3.18 16.69 ± 2.96 17.10 ± 3.09 <0.001
T1 Carbohydrate Intake (%TE) 521 50.31 ± 6.65 50.32 ± 6.35 50.31 ± 6.47 0.996
T2 Carbohydrate Intake (%TE) 529 48.99 ± 5.91 49.88 ± 5.94 49.48 ± 5.94 0.089
T3 Carbohydrate Intake (%TE) 541 49.05 ± 5.50 49.96 ± 6.09 49.57 ± 5.85 0.072
T1Total Fat Intake (%TE) 521 35.47 ± 5.92 35.83 ± 5.45 35.68 ± 5.66 0.471
T2 Total Fat Intake (%TE) 529 36.11 ± 5.35 36.30 ± 5.43 36.22 ± 5.39 0.673
T3 Total Fat Intake (%TE) 541 36.19 ± 5.26 36.20 ± 5.40 36.19 ± 5.33 0.978
T1 SFA3 Intake (%TE) 521 13.35 ± 3.00 13.76 ± 2.93 13.57 ± 2.97 0.119
T2 SFA3 Intake (%TE) 529 13.45 ± 3.00 13.95 ± 3.00 13.72 ± 3.02 0.055
T3 SFA3 Intake (%TE) 541 14.00 ± 3.17 13.90 ± 3.10 13.93 ± 3.14 0.721
T1 MUFA4 Intake (%TE) 521 11.09 ± 2.55 11.38 ± 2.40 11.26 ± 2.47 0.184
T2 MUFA4 Intake (%TE) 529 11.41 ± 2.37 11.49 ± 2.26 11.46 ± 2.31 0.695
T3 MUFA4 Intake (%TE) 541 11.25 ± 2.29 11.38 ± 2.21 11.33 ± 2.24 0.497
T1 PUFA5 Intake (%TE) 521 5.99 ± 2.10 5.81 ± 2.11 5.90 ± 2.12 0.347
T2 PUFA5 Intake (%TE) 529 6.07 ± 1.76 5.78 ± 1.80 5.91 ± 1.80 0.066
T3 PUFA5 Intake (%TE) 541 5.79 ± 1.81 5.72 ± 1.87 5.76 ± 1.85 0.672
T1 Glycaemic Index 521 57.38 ± 4.24 57.71 ± 4.03 57.56 ± 4.12 0.365
T2 Glycaemic Index 529 56.26 ± 4.04 57.83 ± 3.71 57.13 ± 3.93 <0.001
T3 Glycaemic Index 541 56.12 ± 3.88 57.70 ± 3.88 57.00 ± 3.96 <0.001
T1 Glycaemic Load 521 132.40 ± 32.79 136.45 ± 38.70 134.69 ± 36.21 0.209
T2 Glycaemic Load 529 123.34 ± 31.42 140.26 ± 36.90 132.93 ± 35.62 <0.001
T3 Glycaemic Load 541 126.49 ± 30.03 139.81 ± 37.22 134.10 ± 34.96 <0.001
Neonatal Weight (kg) 542 4.05 ± 0.47 4.01 ± 0.45 4.02 ± 0.46 0.274
Neonatal Length (cm) 542 53.01 ± 2.40 52.48 ± 2.68 52.73 ± 2.56 0.160
Neonatal Abdominal Circ6 (cm) 222 33.24 ± 2.29 33.54 ± 1.96 33.40 ± 2.11 0.303
Neonatal Waist Circ6:Height Ratio 182 0.63 ± 0.04 0.64 ± 0.05 0.64 ± 0.05 0.013
Neonatal SOSF7 (mm) 186 28.66 ± 5.60 28.52 ± 4.88 28.58 ± 5.18 0.848
Neonatal Sum TSF8 and SSF9 (mm) 186 13.87 ± 2.83 13.92 ± 2.60 13.90 ± 2.69 0.906
Neonatal TSF8:SSF9 Ratio 186 1.01 ± 0.19 1.00 ± 0.18 1.00 ± 0.19 0.489
Neonatal Waist:Hip Circ6 Ratio 221 0.99 ± 0.06 1.00 ± 0.05 1.00 ± 0.06 0.192

“n” denotes number, %TE denotes percentage of total energy, p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant (2-tailed significance generated from ANOVA or t-tests as appropriate).

*1 hour post 50 g glucose challenge test.

Abbreviations: 1BMI, body mass index; 2 min, minutes; 3SFA, saturated fatty acids; 4MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acids; 5PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids; 6circ, circumference; 7SOSF, sum of skinfolds; 8TSF, triceps skinfold; 9SSF, subscapular skinfold.

Horan et al.

Horan et al. Nutrition Journal 2014 13:78   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-13-78

Open Data