Table 2

Differences in the concentration of retinol, carotenoids and α-tocopherol (μmol/l; mean ± SD) between European and Laotian children and effect of sex

Europe

Laos

all sexes

all sexes

girls

boys


Girls / Boys

101

81

45

36

α-Tocopherol

15.84 ± 4.94

1.885 ± 1.755

3.380 ± 1.805

0.469 ± 1.504*

Retinol

1.22 ± 0.27

0.967 ± 0.230

1.048 ± 0.247

0.931 ± 0.178*

Lutein

0.31 ± 0.21

0.063 ± 0.050

0.062 ± 0.052

0.038 ± 0.038***

Zeaxanthin

0.02 ± 0.02

0.005 ± 0.004

0.004 ± 0.005

0.003 ± 0.002***

β-Cryptoxanthin

0.16 ± 0.14

0.015 ± 0.017

0.009 ± 0.020

0.005 ± 0.011***

α-Carotene

0.65 ± 0.43

0.005 ± 0.010

0.003 ± 0.003

0.002 ± 0.007

β-Carotene

1.57 ± 1.15

0.017 ± 0.020

0.014 ± 0.018

0.006 ± 0.018***

Lycopene

0.26 ± 0.10

Traces

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* P < 0.05 *** P < 0.001

Schweigert et al. Nutrition Journal 2003 2:17   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-2-17

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