Table 2

Effect of smoking on serum concentrations of retinol, alpha-tocopherol and other trace elements

Trace element (μmol/L)

Control (Non-smoker) n = 20

Smoker


Grade I 10–15 sticks/d n = 20

Grade II 16–20 sticks/d n = 30

Grade III 21+ sticks/d n = 30


Retinol

.72 ± .06

.66 ± .12

.45 ± .09*

.28 ± .07*

Alpha-tocopherol

13.5 ± 1.6

10.0 ± .7**

8.6 ± 1.9***

7.9 ± 1.2***

Copper

.44 ± .25

.46 ± .16

.61 ± .19*

.62 ± .27*

Selenium

.013 ± .001

.004 ± .001*

.003 ± .001*

.003 ± .001*

Zinc

.46 ± .23

.46 ± .15

.46 ± .20

.42 ± .15*


Values are mean ± SD. *P < .05; **P < .01; ***P < .001 compared with the control.

Bashar and Mitra Nutrition Journal 2004 3:18   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-3-18

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