Table 5

Prospective Studies of Vitamin D and Cancer.

Reference

Study

Vit D measure

# Cases

# Controls

Outcomes

Comment


[219]

19-year cohort study of 1,954 men

Diet history

↑vit D + calcium = ↓colorectal cancer (rates for lowest to highest intakes were 38.9, 24,5, 22,5 and 14.3/1000 population

Significant effect even after adjustments for confounding factors; 2.7 fold reduction.

[220]

Washington county, Maryland cohort

Serum 25(OH)D

34

67 matched

↑serum vit D = ↓colon cancer. Relative risk was 0.25 for 3rd quintile and 0.20 for 4th quintile.

4–5 fold reduction

[221]

Physicians' Health Study

Serum 25(OH)D & 1,25(OH)D2

232

414

No relation between vitamin D metabolite levels and prostate cancer

[222]

Nurses' Health Study

Dietary and supplement intake

Colon cancer RR = 0.42 (SS) for total vitamin D, comparing top and bottom quintiles

Calcium not related to colon cancer risks; 2.4 fold reduction

[223]

Finnish clinical cohort

Serum 25(OH)D & 1,25(OH)D2

146

292

↑serum 25(OH)D = ↓risk of rectal cancer, RR by quartile = 1.00, 0.93, 0.77, 0.37, P trend = 0.06.

Serum 25(OH)D 12% lower in cases than in controls (12.2 vs 13.8 ng/l, P = 0.01; 2.7-fold reduction

[224]

NHANES I Follow-up Study

Sunlight and diet

190 women

Cohort matched

Risk reductions for breast cancer for women in regions with high solar radiation (RR 0.35 – 0.75).

[225]

Helsinki Heart Study

Serum 25(OH)D

149

596

↑serum 25(OH)D = ↓prostate cancer. 1.7 fold greater risk for below median level compared to above median level.

Young men (<52 years old) with low 25(OH)D had much higher risk of advanced prostate cancer (OR = 6.3)

[226]

Randomized controlled trial for colon adenoma recurrence

Serum 25(OH)D & 1,25(OH)D2, and supplementary calcium

803 subjects total

Above medium 25(OH)D and supplemental calcium reduced adenoma recurrence (RR = 0.71)

Calcium and vitamin D appeared to work together to reduce colon cancer risk.

[227]

Norway, Finland, Sweden cohort of men

Serum 25(OH)D

622

1,451

≤ 19 nmol/l and ≥ 80 nmol/l of 25(OH)D at higher risk of prostate cancer. (40–60 nmol/l had lowest risk).


Donaldson Nutrition Journal 2004 3:19   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-3-19

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