Table 6

Studies of Carotenoids and Lung Cancer.

Reference

Study

# Cases

# Controls

Outcomes

Comment


[228]

Hawaiian cohort

332

865

Dose-dependent inverse associations for dietary β-carotene, α-carotene, lutein; Subjects with highest intake of all 3 had the lowest risk

Previous study showed variety of vegetables more protective than just foods rich in a particular carotenoid

[229]

Washington county, Maryland residents

258

515

↑Serum/plasma levels of cryptoxanthin, β-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin = ↓cancer (OR = 0.74, 0.83, 0.90, SS)

[230]

Case control, Spain

103

206, hospital

No association for intake of α-carotene, β-carotene, or lutein.

[231]

Case control, Uruguay

541

540

↑total carotenoids = ↓cancer (OR = 0.43, SS)

Risk reduction for vit E and glutathione also seen.

[232]

Finland cohort

138

↑α-carotene = ↓cancer (OR = 0.61, SS); β-carotene inversely related but not SS.

90% of α-carotene from carrots

↑Fruits and ↑root vegetables = ↓cancer (OR = 0.58, 0.56, respectively, SS)

[233]

Nurses' Health Study & Health Professionals Follow-Up Study

794

↑α-carotene, lycopene, total carotenoids = ↓cancer (OR = 0.75, 0.80, 068 respectively, SS); Never smokers + ↑α-carotene = ↓cancer (OR = 0.37, SS)

4–8 year lag between diet assessment and date of diagnosis gave strongest correlations.

[234]

Shanghai men's cohort

209

622

↑serum β-cryptoxanthin = ↓cancer (OR quartiles = 1, 0.72, 0.42, 0.45, P-trend = 0.02); Smokers with above median level of total carotenoids had a SS 37% reduction in cancer risk

Study population had ~50% lower mean levels of serum carotenoids compared to US whites.

[235]

Canadian National Breast Screening Study

155

5,631

Non-significant inverse trend in risk for α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin

β-cryptoxanthin most from citrus, red peppers

[236]

Japan Collaborative Cohort Study

147

311

↑α-carotene, β-carotene, canthaxanthin, total carotenoids = ↓risk (OR = 0.35, 0.21, 0.37, 0.27 respectively, SS); lycopene and β-cryptoxanthin reduce lung cancer risk, but not significantly

[237]

Singapore Chinese Health Study

482

↑dietary β-cryptoxanthin = ↓cancer risk (OR = 0.73, 0.63 for smokers, SS)

No significant associations of other carotenoids with lung cancer

[238]

Pooled analysis of 7 cohorts in USA and Europe

3,155

↑ dietary β-cryptoxanthin = ↓lung cancer (OR = 0.76, SS)

Other dietary carotenoids not significantly related to lung cancer.


SS = statistically significant difference between comparison groups.

Donaldson Nutrition Journal 2004 3:19   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-3-19

Open Data