Table 5

Origin, enzymatic pathways of reactive oxygen species, and their oxidized products.

Origin – Location Enzymatic Pathway

ROS Potent Oxidants

PRODUCTS Oxidized lipids and Proteins


Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain

O2-OH

Oxidized lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and autoxidation byproducts.

Inflammatory Macrophage Membraneous NAD(P)H Oxidase

O2OHH2O2

Advanced Lipoxidation Endproducts (ALE) Ortho o-tyrosine Meta m- tyrosine

Granular Myeloperoxidase (MPO)

Hypochlorous Acid HOCL (bleach) Tyr NO2

3-Chlorotyrosine di-Tyrosine NO2-Tyrosine (Nitrotyrosine)

Macrophage Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) Inducible (iNOS) Large bursts uncontrolled

ONOO'

NO2-Tyr (Nitrotyrosine)

Endothelial Cell

Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) Constitutive (cNOS) eNOS → NO nNOS → NO Small bursts (puffs) controlled

NO + O2→ ONOO' ONOO'

NO2-Tyr (Nitrotyrosine) NO2-Tyr

eNOS derived NO

    NO
: the GOOD

Natural Occurring, Local Occurring, Chain Breaking Antioxidant

Superoxide

    O
    2
    .
: the BAD

Peroxynitrite

    ONOO
: the UGLY

Hypochlorous acid

    HCLO
: the UGLY

Restoration of endothelial derived NITRIC OXIDE Via the eNOS reaction..

ANTIOXIDANT ANTIREDOXIDANT → → →

Prevention of the devastating effects of ROS.


Hayden and Tyagi Nutrition Journal 2004 3:4   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-3-4

Open Data