Caco-2 uptake of quercetin-4-glucoside and quercetin from digested shallot and digested plus lactase treated shallot. Shallot homogenates were digested for 30 minutes with pepsin at pH = 2.0 and for 60 minutes with pancreatin/bile at pH = 6.5. Digested shallots were then treated with either 50, 100, 300, or 1000 units lactase/mL sample for 20 minutes. Samples were diluted 1:2 and then placed on the cells for 30 minutes. Each point represents the mean ± standard deviation of triplicate observations within the same experiment.
Boyer et al. Nutrition Journal 2005 4:1 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-4-1