Table 1

Characteristics of Kaya pupils and serum retinol changes

Baseline (T0)

Endline (T1)

p value


(n = 214)

% girls

43.0

-

-

Age (months)

102 ± 19

-

-

Height-for-age Z-score

-0.045 ± 1.40

-0.15 ± 1.36

0.013

BMI-for-age Z-score

-1.0 ± 0.89

-0.99 ± 1.0

0.80

Serum retinol (μmol/L)

Total

0.77 ± 0.37

1.07 ± 0.4

<0.001

Girls

0.79 ± 0.37

1.16 ± 0.45**

<0.001

Boys

0.78 ± 0.37

0.99 ± 0.34**

<0.001

Serum retinol <0.70 μmol/L (%)

Total

47.2 (40.5–53.9)

13.1 (8,6–17.6)

<0.001

Girls

46.7 (36.7–56.7)

8.7 (3–14.4) ‡

<0.001

Boys

47.5 (38.7–56.3)

16.4 (9.9–22.9) ‡

<0.001

Serum retinol <0.35 μmol/L (%)

15.0(8.0–22.0) ‡‡

0

-

Mean serum retinol change in <0.7 μmol/L subjects at baseline n = 101 (%)

-

48.7± 23.5

-

Mean serum retinol change in ≥0.70 μmol/L subjects at baseline n = 113 (%)

-

-10.0± 43.4

-


Mean ± SD or % (CI 95%)

** At T1, mean serum retinol significantly higher in girls than in boys (p = 0. 02)

‡ At T1, rate of low serum retinol tends to be lower in girls (p = 0.098)

‡‡ The rate of very low serum retinol not different in boys and girls (p = 0.20)

† Change = [100*(Serum retinol T1 – serum retinol T0)/Serum retinol T0], significantly higher (p < 0.001) in deficient subjects at baseline

Zeba et al. Nutrition Journal 2006 5:17   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-5-17

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