Table 3

Characteristics of Bogandé pupils and serum retinol changes

G1 (Controls)

G2 (VA capsule)

G3 (Red palm oil)


Baseline (T0)

Endline (T1)

p value

Baseline (T0)

Endline (T1)

p value

Baseline (T0)

Endline (T1)

p value


Total

(n = 106)

(n = 117)

(n = 114)


% girls

43 (34–52)

-

-

49.0 (40–58)

-

-

49.0 (40–58)

-

-

Age (months)

94 ± 20

-

-

101 ± 20

-

-

102 ± 22

-

-

Height-for-age Z-score

††0.55 ± 1.90

††0.43 ± 1.6

0.61

†† -0.16 ± 1.50

†† -0.33 ± 1.20

0.33

††-0.38 ± 1.56

†† -0.33 ± 1.20

0.78

BMI-for-age Z-score

-0.91 ± 0.94

-1.25 ± 1.27

0.022

-0.93 ± 0.96

-1.34 ± 1.00

0.002

-1.13 ± 0.88

-1.40 ± 0.99

0.03


Mean serum retinol (μmol/L)


Total

**0.96 ± 0.36

0.94 ± 0.30

0.66

**0.77 ± 0.28

0.98 ± 0.33

<0.001

**0.82 ± 0.30

0.98 ± 0.33

<0.001

Girls

0.96 ± 0.35

0.99 ± 0.30

0.66

0.77 ± 0.29

1.00 ± 0.34

<0.001

0.83 ± 0.30

0.96 ± 0.26

0.010

Boys

0.95 ± 0.38

0.91 ± 0.30

0.50

0.78 ± 0.27

0.97 ± 0.32

<0.001

0.81 ± 0.29

0.96 ± 0.26

0.020


Serum retinol <0.70 μmol/L (%)


Total

‡23.6 (15.6–31.6)

14.2 (8.2–20.2)

0.08

‡46.1 (36.7–56.7)

17.1 (10.1–27.1)

<0.001

‡40.4 (31.4–49.4)

14.9 (8.9–20.9)

<0.001

Girls

‡‡15.5 (5.5–25.5)

13.3 (4.3–22.3)

0.76

‡‡45,6 (33.6–57.6)

14.0 (5.0–23.0)

<0.001

‡‡36.4 (24.4–48.4)

9.1 (2.1–16.1)

<0.001

Boys

‡‡25.5 (15.5–35.5)

14.8 (6.8–22.8)

0.24

‡‡46.7 (34.7–58.7)

20.0 (10.0–30.0)

0.002

‡‡44.1 (32.1–56.1)

20.3 (10.3–30.3)

0.006


% Serum retinol <0.35 μmol/L

0.0

2.0

-

0

1.0

-

0

0

-


Mean serum retinol change in <0.7 μmol/L subjects at baseline (%)


-

†38.0 ± 47.1 N = 25

-

-

†87.5 ± 111.2 N = 54

-

-

†63.1 ± 65.7 N = 46

-


Mean serum retinol change in ≥0.70 μmol/L subjects at baseline (%)


-

-2.0 ± 29.0 N = 81

-

9.6 ± 33.9 N = 63

-

-

6.9 ± 39.2 N = 68

-


Mean ± SD or % (CI 95%)

** At T0, mean serum retinol significantly higher in group G1 than in G2 and G3 (p < 0.001)

‡ At T0, rate of low serum retinol significantly lower in group G1 than in G2 and G3 (p = 0.012)

‡‡ The rate of very low serum retinol not different in boys and girls in the three groups G1, G2 and G3 (p = 0.83, 0.90 and 0.40, respectively)

†Change [100*(Serum retinol T1 - serum retinol T0)/Serum retinol T0]: Significantly higher in initially deficient subjects of groups G2 and G3 than in G1 (p < 0.001)

††At T0 and T1, the pupils from G1 were significantly taller than those in G2 and G3 (p < 0.001)

Zeba et al. Nutrition Journal 2006 5:17   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-5-17

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