Table 2

Relationship between urinary lithogen factors, types of renal calculi and dietary recommendations

Urinary Lithogen Factor

Values of potentially lithogenic urinary biochemical parameters

Type of renal calculi

Dietary recommendations


pH

< 5.5

COM u

UA

COM/UA

CYS

Decrease habitual consumption of:

• Animal protein

Increase habitual consumption of:

• Citrus juices

• Soft-drinks

• Citric acid rich beverages


pH

> 6.0

COM p

COM u

COD

HAP

COD/HAP

BRU

Decrease habitual consumption of:

• Vegetarian diet

• Citrus juices

• Soft-drinks

• Citric acid rich beverages


Calcium

>170 mg/L

female: >250 mg/24 h

male: >300 mg/24 h

COD

HAP

COD/HAP

Increase habitual consumption of:

• Water intake (> 2 l/day)

Decrease habitual consumption of:

• Sodium

• Animal protein

Control:

• Vitamin D consumption

• Calcium supplements


Oxalate

> 40 mg/24 h

COM p

COM u

Decrease habitual consumption of:

• Oxalate rich foods (see Table 4)

• Ascorbic acid rich foods

(vitamin C intake greater than 2 g/day)


Citrate

< 350 mg/24 h

COM p

COM u

COD

HAP

COD/HAP

Increase habitual consumption of:

• Citrate rich foods

• Citric acid rich beverages


Phytate

< 1 mg/24 h

COM p

COM u

COD

BRU

Increase habitual consumption of:

• Phytate rich foods (see Table 3)


Urate

> 650 mg/ml

female: > 600 mg/24 h

male: > 800 mg/24 h

UA

COM/UA

Decrease habitual consumption of:

• Purine rich foods (see Table 5)

• Alcoholic drinks


COM p: Calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary

COM u: Calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached (formed in renal cavities)

COD: Calcium oxalate dihydrate

COD/HAP: Calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite mixed

HAP: Hydroxyapatite

STR: Struvite infectious

BRU: Brushite

UA: Uric acid

COM/UA: Calcium oxalate/uric acid mixed

Grases et al. Nutrition Journal 2006 5:23   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-5-23

Open Data