Table 4

Association between serum folate concentrations and consumption of tobacco, coffee, and alcohol in the study sample of Cretan adults.

Age- & gender-adjusted 1

Multivariate-adjusted 2


Geometric mean (95% CI)


Tobacco consumption

Non/ex-smokers (n = 314)

18.0 (16.9–19.1)

17.4 (16.3–18.6)

Current smokers (n = 165)

16.0 (14.7–17.4)3

16.2 (14.9–17.7)

<10 cigs/day (n = 52)

17.7 (15.3–20.5)

16.5 (14.1–19.4)

10–19 cigs/day (n = 36)

15.0 (12.6–17.9)

14.7 (12.2–17.8)

≥20 cigs/day (n = 76)

14.6 (12.9–16.5)4

14.9 (12.9–17.2)

Coffee consumption

None (n = 102)

18.2 (16.4–20.2)

17.9 (16.2–19.8)

≤200 g/day (n = 195)

16.9 (15.7–18.2)

17.2 (16.0–18.5)

>200 g/day (n = 86)

15.5 (13.8–17.3)5

15.6 (14.0–17.4)

Alcohol consumption

None (n = 293)

17.0 (16.0–18.1)

17.0 (16.0–18.0)

≤180 g/day (n = 43)

16.0 (13.6–18.9)

16.1 (13.8–18.9)

>180 g/day (n = 47)

16.8 (14.4–19.7)

18.2 (15.6–21.2)


1 ANCOVA, controlling for age and gender.

2 ANCOVA, controlling for age, gender, district of residence, total energy intake, intakes of MUFA, fibre, calcium, magnesium, folate, vitamins A, E, C, B1, B6 (all log transformed).

4 Non/ex-smokers had significantly higher serum folate concentrations than current smokers (p = 0.029).

5 p = 0.047, linear trend by level of tobacco consumption.

6 p = 0.035, linear trend by level of coffee consumption.

Hatzis et al. Nutrition Journal 2006 5:5   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-5-5

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