Table 4

Serum nutrient and biomarker concentrations of a sample of long-term users of multiple dietary supplements (Multiple Supp), and of multivitaminmineral users (Single Supp) and non-users (No Supp) from NHANES 2001–2002 and NHANES III 1988–1994.

Characteristic

No Supp n = 602

Single Supp N = 176

Multiple Supp N = 278

p-value*


Mean (SE)


NUTRIENTS

RBC folate (nmol/L)

646.7 (8.9) a

891.1 (30.7) b

1153.4 (11.8) c

<0.001

Retinol (μg/dL)

59.2 (0.5) a

64.3 (0.7) b

65.0 (1.0) b

<0.001

Ascorbic acid (mg/dL)

0.66 (0.02) a

0.94 (0.02) b

1.62 (0.03) c

<0.001

Alpha tocopherol (mg/dL)

1.1 (0.01) a

1.4 (0.02) b

2.9 (0.06) c

<0.001

Alpha carotene (μg/dL)

4.5 (0.1) a

5.9 (0.2) b

27.5 (1.3) c

<0.001

Beta carotene (μg/dL)

18.5 (0.3) a

27.0 (1.2) b

62.7 (2.8) c

<0.001

Ferritin (μg/L)Male

198.2 (6.1) a

205.2 (12.6) a

117.6 (5.9) b

<0.001

Ferritin (μg/L)Female

101.7 (7.1) a

74.9 (8.4) b

117.4 (3.3) c

<0.001

25-hydroxyvitamin D (nmol/L)

131.4 (45.3)§

BIOMARKERS

Homocysteine (μmol/L)

9.6 (0.2) a

9.1 (0.5) a

6.1 (0.3) b

<0.001

C-reactive protein (mg/dL)

0.46 (0.04) a

0.32 (0.03) b

0.19(0.03) c

<0.01

Total cholesterol (mg/dL)

211.5 (2.9) a

212.1 (3.6) a

203.1 (2.7) b

<0.05

LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)

125.1 (2.8)

129.5 (4.2)

122.1 (2.6)

NS (>0.05)

HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)

50.9(0.5) a

53.3 (1.4) a

57.5 (1.1) b

<0.001

Ratio total-cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol

4.5 (0.07) a

4.3 (0.13) a

4.0 (0.09) b

<0.001

Triglycerides (mg/dL)

180.1 (16.7) a

145.3 (9.4) a

121.0 (6.8) b

< 0.01


*Multiple regression techniques were employed to examine differences in nutrient and biomarker concentrations of user groups. Differences in nutrient concentrations were adjusted for sex and age. Differences in biomarker concentrations were further adjusted for age2, education, income and income2, and body mass index (BMI). P-values represent the statistical significance for comparisons of user group means with different letters; if these comparisons varied in significance level, the most significant is shown.

Data obtained from NHANES III 1988–1994.

Data obtained from NHANES 2001–2002.

§Comparable 25–hydroxy vitamin D data not available from NHANES.

LDL = low-density lipoprotein, HDL = high-density lipoprotein.

Block et al. Nutrition Journal 2007 6:30   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-6-30

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