Timeline comparing use of the Calorie (kg basis or kcal), g-cal, kcal and joule. MKS, m-kg-s system of units; CGS, cm-g-s system of units. First known usage of the Calorie in German was by Mayer in 1845 . First known occurrence in English was when Adolphe Ganot's physics text  was translated in 1863.
Hargrove Nutrition Journal 2007 6:44 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-6-44