Table 2

Plasma levels of micronutrients and vitamins as well as IgG content of protein carbonyls and plasma MDA levels observed in the study participants (n = 112) at each monthly counseling session (mean ± SD): baseline (T0), 4 weeks (T1), 8 weeks (T2) and 12 weeks (T3).

Parameter

T0

T1

T2

T3


Lutein (μmol/L)

0.37 ± 0.16

0.39 ± 0.16

0.40 ± 0.15

0.41 ± 0.16 *

Zeaxanthin (μmol/L)

0.08 ± 0.07

0.08 ± 0.03

0.08 ± 0.03

0.08 ± 0.03

β-Cryptoxanthin (μmol/L)

0.35 ± 0.36

0.35 ± 0.28

0.31 ± 0.25

0.27 ± 0.19

Lycopene (μmol/L)

0.45 ± 0.28

0.50 ± 0.33

0.49 ± 0.30

0.51 ± 0.28 *

α-Carotene (μmol/L)

0.12 ± 0.13

0.19 ± 0.18

0.19 ± 0.17

0.18 ± 0.17 *

β-Carotene (μmol/L)

0.65 ± 0.45

0.87 ± 0.64

0.86 ± 0.65

0.85 ± 0.62 *

Retinol (μmol/L)

1.35 ± 0.35

1.33 ± 0.35

1.34 ± 0.35

1.33 ± 0.30

α-Tocopherol (μmol/L)

28.9 ± 10.3

28.7 ± 11.4

28.4 ± 9.6

29.5 ± 9.8

Vitamin C (μmol/L)

55.1 ± 20.9

57.4 ± 26.9

55.6 ± 23.3

63.6 ± 21.8 *

Vitamin B6 (nmol/L)

48.3 ± 30.9

65.4 ± 39.2

64.0 ± 37.5

64.4 ± 41.6 *

IgG Carbonyls (nmol/mg)

0.79 ± 0.64

0.87 ± 0.9

0.87 ± 0.79

0.80 ± 0.67

MDA (μmol/L)

0.15 ± 0.11

0.17 ± 0.12

0.16 ± 0.11

0.17 ± 0.16


* p < 0.01, two-sided pair-wise t-test after correction for age, gender and smoking status

Polidori et al. Nutrition Journal 2009 8:10   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-8-10

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