Table 3

Food intake patterns in women in northern Sweden, 1992–2005

Food intake clusters1


Food group

Fruit and vegetables

High fat

Coffee and sandwich

Tea and ice cream

Overall mean (SD)

frequency/day

Number of subjects (%)

4,729 (15)

10,572 (32)

9,138 (28)

8,161 (25)

32,600 (100)


High-fat spreads

-

+++

--

-

0.66 (0.75)

Low-fat spreads

-

--

+++

-

0.63 (0.77)

Oil

+

-

-

+

0.28 (0.36)

Fat in cooking

-

+

+

-

0.47 (0.41)

Fruit

+++

-

-

-

1.14 (0.74)

Vegetables

+++

-

-

-

1.19 (0.80)

Milk, 0.5%

+

-

+

-

0.39 (0.55)

Milk, 1.5%

-

+

+

-

0.46 (0.54)

Milk, 3%

-

+

-

=

0.32 (0.36)

Cream

-

+

=

=

0.10 (0.11)

High-fat cheese

-

+

=

=

0.43 (0.43)

Low-fat cheese

+

-

+

-

0.24 (0.36)

Cold cereals

+

-

+

=

0.33 (0.31)

White bread

-

+

+

-

0.39 (0.38)

High fiber bread

+

-

+

-

1.29 (0.72)

Boiled potato

+

=

=

-

0.40 (0.24)

Fried potatoes

-

+

+

=

0.06 (0.05)

Rice

+

-

=

+

0.11 (0.11)

Pasta

+

-

=

+

0.14 (0.10)

Fish

+

-

=

=

0.17 (0.10)

Red meat

+

-

=

=

0.30 (0.13)

Traditional meat

-

=

=

=

0.15 (0.07)

Chicken

++

-

=

=

0.06 (0.04)

Cold cuts

=

-

+

-

0.33 (0.31)

Classic

=

=

=

=

0.11 (0.06)

Sweets

-

+

=

+

0.14 (0.16)

Sugar and jam

-

+

=

-

0.40 (0.52)

Ice cream

=

=

=

+

0.06 (0.06)

Cookies

-

+

+

-

0.36 (0.33)

Snacks

-

=

=

=

0.05 (0.05)

Soda

-

+

=

+

0.19 (0.26)

Beer

=

+

+

=

0.05 (0.07)

Wine

=

-

=

-

0.05 (0.06)

Spirits

=

=

=

=

0.02 (0.03)

Coffee

+

+

+++

---

1.66 (0.95)

Tea

-

-

-

++

0.43 (0.54)


SD, Standard deviation

1 The sign – indicates variation below the mean daily frequency of intake for all women, while + indicates variation above the mean daily frequency of intake for all women. For example, we used + (or -) for 0.1–0.49 SD units (SDUs); ++ (or --) for 0.5–0.99 SDUs; and +++ (or ---) for 1.0–1.99 SDUs. The sign = means equal to mean frequency of intake. For example, for "High-fat spreads", the "Fruit and vegetables" group had a mean intake that was 0.1–0.49 SDUs below the mean intake for all women, i.e., 0.1 × 0.75 – 0.49 × 0.75 below 0.66 times/day, which equals between 0.29 and 0.58 times/day.

Winkvist et al. Nutrition Journal 2009 8:12   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-8-12

Open Data