Table 4

Food intake patterns in men in northern Sweden, 1992–2005

Food intake clusters1


Food group

Fruit and vegetables

High fat

Tea, soda and cookies

Overall mean (SD)

frequency/day

Number of subjects (%)

9,179 (31)

8,725 (29)

12,027 (40)

29,931 (100)


High-fat spreads

--

++

+

0.70 (0.64)

Low-fat spreads

+++

--

--

0.41 (0.59)

Oil

+

-

=

0.18 (0.23)

Fat in cooking

-

+

=

0.33 (0.29)

Fruit

+

-

=

0.57 (0.45)

Vegetables

+

-

-

0.61 (0.45)

Milk, 0.5%

+

-

-

0.25 (0.41)

Milk, 1.5%

-

+

-

0.40 (0.46)

Milk, 3%

-

+

+

0.26 (0.32)

Cream

=

=

=

0.07 (0.08)

High-fat cheese

=

-

=

0.32 (0.32)

Low-fat cheese

+

-

-

0.16 (0.25)

Cold cereals

+

-

+

0.23 (0.23)

White bread

=

-

=

0.39 (0.35)

High fiber bread

+++

=

-

0.99 (0.59)

Boiled potato

=

=

-

0.29 (0.20)

Fried potatoes

+

=

=

0.07 (0.06)

Rice

=

=

=

0.08 (0.09)

Pasta

=

=

=

0.11 (0.08)

Fish

=

=

=

0.13 (0.07)

Red meat

=

=

=

0.25 (0.11)

Traditional meat

=

=

=

0.14 (0.07)

Chicken

+

=

=

0.04 (0.03)

Cold cuts

+

=

-

0.28 (0.26)

Classic

=

=

=

0.09 (0.05)

Sweets

=

-

=

0.11 (0.12)

Sugar and jam

-

+

-

0.52 (0.57)

Ice cream

=

=

=

0.05 (0.05)

Cookies

-

-

=

0.29 (0.27)

Snacks

=

=

=

0.04 (0.05)

Soda

-

-

+

0.19 (0.23)

Beer

=

+

=

0.09 (0.11)

Wine

+

=

=

0.03 (0.05)

Spirits

=

=

=

0.03 (0.04)

Coffee

+

++

--

1.36 (0.76)

Tea

=

-

+

0.26 (0.37)


SD, Standard deviation

1 The sign – indicates variation below the mean frequency of intake, while + indicates variation above the mean frequency of intake. For example, we used + (or -) for 0.1–0.49 SD units (SDUs); ++ (or --) for 0.5–0.99 SDUs; and +++ (or ---) for 1.0–1.99 SDUs. The sign = means equal to mean frequency of intake. For example, for "High-fat spreads", the "Fruit and vegetables" group had a mean intake of 0.5–0.99 SDUs below the mean intake, i.e., 0.5 × 0.64 – 0.99 × 0.64 below 0.70 times/day, which equals 0.07–0.38 times/day.

Winkvist et al. Nutrition Journal 2009 8:12   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-8-12

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