24-h profiles of plasma acyl-ghrelin (upper) and desacyl-ghrelin (lower). Plasma ghrelin levels peaked in the early morning and decreased after meals. Plasma ghrelin levels are shown based on a value calculated before breakfast on the morning of day 1 as 100. Plasma desacyl-ghrelin levels with formula resembled those with no formula administration, while single administration of formula between breakfast and lunch induced higher acyl-ghrelin levels before dinner, remaining high until the next morning. Open circles, levels without administration of formula; closed circles, levels with administration of formula; closed squares administration of formula. Arrows show meal-taking for inpatients with chronic respiratory disease. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. *, p < 0.05 for ghrelin level with vs. without administration of formula.
Ashitani et al. Nutrition Journal 2009 8:25 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-8-25